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Sniping

Sniping

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Sniping
Sniping

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Published by: intense4dislike on Sep 15, 2012
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FM 3-22.10 SNIPER TRAINING AND OPERATIONS ? 10/19/2009 ?Change? Draft?
Chapter 1
Introduction
The sniper has special abilities, training, and equipment. His mission is to deliver discriminatory, highly accurate rifle fire against enemy targets which cannot beengaged successfully by the rifleman because of range, size, location, visibility, or fleeting nature. Sniping requires the perfection of basic infantry skills.
MISSION
1-1.In combat, the primary mission of a sniper is to support combat operations by delivering preciselong-range fire on selected targets. This creates a marked effect on enemy troops; it creates casualties,slows movement, instills fear and influences their decisions and actions, lowers morale, and adds confusionto their operations. The secondary mission of the sniper is to collect and report battlefield information.1-2.A well-trained sniper, combined with the inherent accuracy of his rifle and ammunition, is a versatilesupporting arm available to an infantry commander. A sniper enhances a unit’s firepower and augments thevaried means for destruction and harassment of the enemy. Whether a sniper is organic or attached, he provides that unit with supporting fire. The sniper’s role is unique in that it is the sole means by which aunit can engage point targets at distances beyond the effective range of M16- and M4-series weapons. Thisrole becomes more significant when the target is entrenched or positioned among civilians, or during riotcontrol missions; the fires of automatic weapons in such operations can result in the wounding or killing of noncombatants.1-3.Snipers are employed in all levels of conflict. This includes conventional offensive and defensivecombat in which precision fire is delivered at long ranges.
HISTORY
“Nothing chills the blood of a Soldier on the battlefield more than the crack of a rifleshot and the cry of “SNIPER!” A skilled sniper can stop even the largest units in their tracks with a few well-aimed shots that take out key personnel such as scouts or officers, seriously damaging the enemy’s moral.”- Michael E. Haskew,
The Sniper at War 
“Certainly there is no hunting like the hunting of an armed man, and those who havehunted armed men long enough and liked it never care for anything else thereafter.”- Ernest Hemingway, "On the Blue Water,"
Esquire
, April 1936
1-4.From Leonardo Da Vinci to the present, the long-range marksman has had a marked effect on thedirection, drive, and scope of battle. By his discriminatory nature, he has felled the command structure of his enemies, rendered their equipment useless, and driven fear into the hearts of their men. The sniper isone of the most effective weapons on the field of battle. He is frugal and precise.1-5.The term "sniper" originally had nothing to do with the current use of the word; "sniper" described an18th century English gamesman who was able to successfully hunt the small, fast, and agile snipe (aEuropean gamebird, similar to the woodcock). Snipers were skilled trackers and marksmen, much likemodern day snipers. The term "sniper" first entered military use in 1773, when Soldiers began "sniping," or  putting their hats on sticks for the enemy to shoot at.
DateFM 3-22.101-1
 
Chapter 1
1-6.World War I introduced the world to a new type of combat, trench warfare. The trench sniper movedabout the battlefield alone, searched for targets of value, used his scope to observe enemy positions, andrecorded his observations in a special notebook. This was the birth of the modern sniper.
PERSONNEL SELECTION CRITERIA
1-7.Commander involvement in personnel selection is critical. The high standards of training and theindependent nature of the sniper's mission require the commander to screen sniper candidates carefully,looking for evidence of potential aptitude as a sniper. The commander should consider the followingfactors prior to selecting and recommending a Soldier for attendance to the US Army Sniper School(USASS).
Q
UALIFICATIONS
1-8.A Soldier needs high motivation and the ability to learn various skills if he is to withstand therigorous training program and the increased personal risk and rigors of the job. He also needs an excellent personal record. A sniper candidate must meet criteria in the areas of marksmanship, physical condition,vision, psychological profile (mental and emotional balance), intelligence, and fieldcraft.
Marksmanship
1-9.The chain of command must ensure that sniper candidates meet expert annual marksmanshipqualification standards. As an expert, he must also show a basic understanding of marksmanshipfundamentals.
Physical Condition
1-10.The sniper is often employed in extended operations with little sleep, food, or water. This requiresoutstanding physical condition. Good health means good reflexes, muscular control, and stamina. Also, theself-confidence and control that Soldiers gain from athletics, especially from team sports, prove definiteassets to a sniper candidate.1-11.No sniper should be a habitual smoker or user of smokeless tobacco. Smoke or an unsuppressedsmoker's cough can reveal the sniper's position. Also, the efficiency of a Soldier who has quit using tobaccoonly for the mission is impaired by involuntary nervousness and irritation.
Vision
1-12.Excellent vision (e.g., vision correctable to 20/20 or better) is the sniper's main tool. A Soldier whowears glasses could become a liability as the glasses may be lost or damaged. Color blindness is also anadditional liability, since it prevents the sniper from detecting camouflaged targets.
Psychological Profile
1-13.A psychological examination can help reveal whether a candidate has the right psychologicalqualities to be a sniper:
Will he pull the trigger at the right time and place?
Is he reliable?
Has he shown initiative, loyalty, discipline, and emotional stability?1-14.The sniper must be able to eliminate targets calmly and deliberately, even if they pose no immediatethreat to him. Killing in self-defense or in the defense of others is much easier than doing so withoutapparent provocation. The sniper must be able to do his job without anxiety and remorse. Those whosemotivation toward sniper training rests mainly in the desire for prestige may lack the rationality that the jobrequires.
1-2FM 3-22.10Date
 
Introduction
Intelligence
1-15.A sniper must either possess a working knowledge or be able to learn the following:
Ballistics.
Ammunition types and capabilities.
Adjustment of optical devices.
Radio operation and procedures.
Observation and adjustment of mortar and artillery fire.
Land navigation.
Military intelligence collection and reports.
Identification of threat uniforms and equipment.
Fieldcraft
1-16.The sniper must know the field and feel comfortable spending long periods there. An extensive background in the outdoors and a vast knowledge of natural outdoor occurrences will help aid him in thetimely and efficient execution of many of his tasks.
US A
RMY
S
NIPER 
S
CHOOL
P
REREQUISITES
1-17.The commander must ensure that the candidate— 
Is male.
Is at least a private first class.
Is Active duty, Army National Guard, or Army Reserve.
Has a good performance record.
Has a minimum GT score of 110, nonwaiverable.
Earned at least 70 points on each event during the Army Physical Fitness Test.
Has no history of alcohol or drug abuse.
Has no record of disciplinary action.
Has volunteered for sniper school.
Has vision correctable to at least 20/20 and passes red/green color vision test.
Is an expert marksman with the M16-/M4-series weapon.
Meets a minimum retainability of one year upon graduation date.
Meets the height and weight standards in accordance with (IAW) AR 600-9.
Is in career management field (CMF) 11-series, 18-series, or 19D.
C
APABILITIES
O
F
A U
NITED
S
TATES
A
RMY
S
NIPER 
S
CHOOL
G
RADUATE
1-18.Upon graduation from the USASS, the sniper will return to the unit highly skilled in fieldcraft andmarksmanship and capable of— 
Providing precision fires on selected targets from concealed positions from 100 to 800 meters.
Engaging moving targets from 100 to 600 meters during daylight hours.
Engaging moving targets from 100 to 400 meters during hours of limited visibility.
Engaging targets with the long range sniper rifle (LRSR) from 100 to 2000 meters.
Accurately reporting battlefield information in sketch, sniper log, range card, or digital formats.
Conducting tactical movement while under direct observation in woodland and urbanenvironments.
Detecting targets and recalling pertinent target characteristics.
Performing all tasks in this manual.
DateFM 3-22.101-3

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