J. KLIBER, I. MAMUZI]
SELECTED NEW TECHNOLOGIESAND RESEARCH THEMES IN MATERIALS FORMING
Received – Prispjelo: 2008-10-24Accepted – Prihva}eno: 2009-07-10Review Paper – Pregledni rad
HIGH PRESSURE TORSION PROCESSING
Cyclic plastic deformation introduced by forgingwith a rotating lower anvil leads to materials with grainsize between 20 and 200 nm, depending on various fac-tors. This severe plastic deformation process known asHigh Pressure Torsion (HPT) can be used for formingnanopowdersinordertorefinetheirmicrostructure.Me-chanical properties of such products are given by theamount of plastic deformation, i.e. by the total amountofstrain
.Understandingthisrelationshipandtheim- pactofrepetitivedeformationiscrucial.Itisnotonlytheindividual deformation cycles but the plasticity limit aswell that play a role in this process. Software simulationis used for modelling laboratory or plant processing prior to its actual application. Figure 1 outlines the prin-ciples of the HTP process. The workpiece is held andcompressed between the upper and lower anvils. Thelower anvil rotates, thereby exerting shear forcesthrough friction between its surface and the material.Development of the software model was based on dislo-cation structures.
t a rg g
t a rg g
(2)It comprised the classical equation (1) and the equa-tion (2), where
denote the shear strain rate inthecentreofthecellandnearitsboundary,respectively,
is the shear modulus of elasticity,
denotes the Bur-gers vector,
is the initial reference shear strain rate,1/
denotes the strain rate coefficient and
is normally0,25.Theaboveequationsareusefulfordeterminingthedislocation density and understanding how the harden-ing of material depends on the imparted strain.The actual simulations were carried out using theDEFORM software. The experimental material was polycrystalline copper. Its hardening equation had theform of a power function up to about 450 MPa (peak strain) at true strain of about 5. Computer simulationwas also used to determine the diameter and height of the workpiece, which were 20 and 10 millimetres, re-spectively.Figure2showsitsresults:sectiona)isaclas-sical upsetting process, section b) refers to upsettingwithasinglerevolutionandsectionc)displaysresultsof upsetting with two revolutions. Upon simple upsetting
METALURGIJA 49 (2010) 3, 169-174
169Thearticlegivesareviewofselectednewtechnologiesofmaterialsforming.Thatisselected10procedures,first,highpressuretorsionprocessing,attheend,metalinjectionmolding.Allthenewprocedureshavegoodperformanceandin the future for expect more the application in industry.
new forming technologies, research, the performance, the application
Odabrane nove tehnologije i zadaci istra`ivanja u oblikovanju deformiranjem materijala.
^lanak daje osvrt odabranih novih tehnologija u oblikovanju deformiranjem materijala. To je odabranih 10 postupaka, prvi,visokotla~natorzionaobradbainakraju,lijeva~koinjektiranjemetala.Svinovipostupciimajudobrekarakteristikeiubudu}nosti za o~ekivati ve}u primjenu u undustriji.
nove tehnologije oblikovanja deformiranjem, istra`ivanje, karakteristike, primjenaISSN 0543-5846METABK 49(3) 169-174 (2010)UDC – UDK 621.77:62-462.3:621.73.04:621.762.4=111
J. Kliber; Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, V[B-TU,Czech RepublicI. Mamuzic, Faculty of Metallurgy University of Zagreb, Sisak, Croatia.