3water to determine if they are present and potentially stimulating antibiotic resistance in thepurple pipes. Together, this information may help inform effective treatment and distributionmanagement strategies.
This research team would be amenable to working with themunicipality in pro-actively evaluating and testing a treatment and management plan thatcould minimize potential risks of antibiotic resistance in recycled water.
Risk assessmentmodels tailored to ARGs and antibiotic resistance would also be beneficial.
Samples were collected from a representative range of areas irrigated by the City of Flagstaff’s two wastewater reclamation facilities, Rio de Flag and Wildcat. The two plantsprovide provides recycled water for twelve elementary schools, seventeen publicparks/landscaping areas, and various golf courses and cemeteries. Recycled wastewater samplesexamined in this study were collected by Dr. Robin Silver and shipped overnight on ice toVirginia Tech for analysis. The eleven water samples were collected from a range of areas thatthe reclamation plants serve, including baseball fields, parks, and soccer fields (see Table 1 forcomplete list of sample names and locations).
Table 1: Recycled Water Samples
Sample ID Sample TypeSample LocationRdF1
Water Thorpe Park, Baseball Field North
Water Bushmaster Park
Water Thorpe Park
Water Rio de Flag Construction Outlet
Water Wildcat WWTP Outlet
Water Rio de Flag WWTP Outside Faucet
Water Thorpe Park, Baseball Field South
Water Coconino HS, Baseball Field
Water Foxglen Soccer Field
Water Thorpe Soccer Field North
Water Wheeler Park
50 mL sub-samples were concentrated to a powder by freeze-drying. DNA was extractedfrom the powder using standard procedures in preparation for quantitative polymerase chainreaction (Q-PCR). Q-PCR enabled direct quantification of ARGs, without cell culturing. This isan advantage because the vast majoring of bacteria (99%) do not grow on a Petri dish.Therefore, Q-PCR quantification provided comprehensive detection of ARGs present in thewater samples that could be compared with other studies. ARGs targeted in this study are listedin Table 2.