Auxiliary Verbs 2
You are likely to be tested on your knowledge of auxiliary verbsin Parts 2 and 5 of Paper 3 Use of English. This unit will look at the auxiliary verbs used in structures that express obligation andpermission.
' is used when the speaker has authority, '
' when the authority isexternal to the speaker.Example:
Keysmust be left at reception.
Youhave toleave your keys at reception.
(one guest to another)
Needn't have/didn't need to
Didn't need to
' is used to show that something wasn't necessary and so wasn't done.'
' is used to show that something was done unnecessarily.Example:
Wedidn't need tomake a reservation. We knew it would be empty.Look! The train's empty! Weneedn't havemade a reservation.
' and '
' express obligation in the sense of communicating strongadvice.Example:
Youshouldtake these tablets every day before meals.Youought tosee a doctor about that cough.
' and '
' are all used to give and ask for permission. '
Be allowed to
' isused to express permission on a particular occasion, not '
Icouldn't / wasn't allowed tostay up late when I was younger.
Iwas allowed toretake the exam after they discovered I was ill.Youwon't be allowed toget in without wearing a tie.
Levels of formality
There are many other words and expressions used to express obligation andpermission, many of which offer a formal equivalent to the more neutral modal verbs.Example:
Youdon't need tocome in tomorrow. Have a day off.
It is not necessary to attend the session as participation is voluntary.
Auxiliary verbs >>Part 2: Open Cloze
Reminder: Part 2 consists of a short text which has 15 gaps. For each gap you have toadd the missing word.Example:He ........ to do well in life as he's always been confident in his abilities.
Answer: 'ought'Auxiliary verbs >>Part 5: Key Word Transformations
Reminder: You have to complete a second sentence so that it has a similar meaning