Asian Development Bank6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City1550 Metro Manila, Philippineswww.adb.org© 2012 by Asian Development Bank August 2012Publication Stock Number WPS124946The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views andpolicies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) or its Board of Governors or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts noresponsibility for any consequence of their use.By making any designation of or reference to a particular territory or geographic area, or by using the term"country" in this document, ADB does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.
Unless otherwise noted, $ refers to US dollars.The Central and West Asia Department Working Paper Series is a forum for stimulating discussion andeliciting feedback on ongoing and recently completed research undertaken by the Asian Development Bank(ADB) staff, consultants, or resource persons. The series deals with development problems, particularlythose facing the Central and West Asia subregion; as well as conceptual, analytical, or methodologicalissues relating to project or program social and poverty analysis, and statistical data and measurement. Theseries a
ims to enhance the knowledge on Asia’s development and policy challenges
, and to strengthen the
analytical rigor and quality of ADB’s regional strategies and its subregional and country operations.
The Central and West Asia Department Working Paper Series is a quick-disseminating, informal publicationwhose titles could subsequently be revised for publication as articles in professional journals or chapters inbooks.