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Decreased density of NOS interneurons in the striatum of individuals with Tourette Syndrome

Decreased density of NOS interneurons in the striatum of individuals with Tourette Syndrome

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Published by Ronnie Li

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Published by: Ronnie Li on Sep 18, 2012
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01/30/2015

 
 
Decreased density of NOS interneurons in the striatum of individuals with Tourette Syndrome
Yifan LiGreat Neck South High School341 Lakeville Road, Great Neck, NY 11020
 
Acknowledgement of Assistance
This research was conducted at Yale University’s Child Study Center from June
29
th
,2010 to August 19
th
, 2010. A laboratory setting was required to do all research.Instruments used included materials used for immunohistochemistry and a microscopewith a camera.Direct supervision was present at all times, although the work was done primarily by thestudent. Dr. Yuko Kataoka supervised the research under the leadership and guidance of Dr. Flora Vaccarino, the Principal Investigator of the laboratory. Allyson Vermaak, aresearch assistant in the laboratory, helped to clarify procedures and elucidate thefunctions of certain chemicals when Dr. Kataoka was not present.
 
1
Introduction
 
Overview of Tourette Syndrome
 Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder occurring in approximately 31-157 outof 1000 and characterized by symptoms such as involuntary movements and vocalizations calledtics
1
. Usually, these tics tend to manifest themselves in childhood, around age 7.
2
TouretteSyndrome has also often been associated with premonitory urges; that is, urges to perform the ticthat occur prior to it
3
. Some patients report feelings of relief after performing the tic.
4
 There are several available treatments for TS, although there is no definite cure.
4
 Medications include benzodiazepines,
1
and neuroleptics, such as haloperidol and sulpiride,which function by strengthening inhibition of overactive areas.
4
The main side effect of thesedrugs is sedation and sometimes irritability. Treatments that do not involve drugs have beentested. Habit Reversal Training (HRT) utilizes the technique of competing motor responses.
5
 Other therapies such as hypnotherapy, relaxation, and biofeedback techniques have beensomewhat successful.
4
Finally, one of the last resorts for very severe TS cases is an invasive butreversible procedure known as deep brain stimulation (DBS). DBS involves stimulation of anarea known as the cingulate gyrus and attempts to regulate the hyperactive areas involved in thegeneration of tics.
6
There is a need to better understand TS in order to provide improvedtreatments.
The basal ganglia
 The human basal ganglia arecrucially involved in the execution of voluntary motor tasks. This collectionof nuclei (groups of neurons) locatedbeneath the cortex has severalproposed roles. One of its mostimportant roles is its contribution tothe synchrony of oscillatory activity of its neurons.
5
Synchrony is achievedwhen groups of neurons firesimultaneously. Lack of synchrony isbelieved to be important in
Figure 1.
Schematic diagram of the basal ganglia pathways.The striatum receives input signals from areas of the cerebralcortex, integrates the information, then sends it via the directand indirect pathways to the rest of the basal ganglia nuclei.
 

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