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Non Tariff Barriers

Non Tariff Barriers

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Published by Prathamesh Ghorpade

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Prathamesh Ghorpade on Sep 18, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/06/2015

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Non-tariff barriers to trade
(NTBs) are trade barriers that restrict imports but are not in the usual form of  a tariff .Some common examples of NTB's are anti-dumping measures and countervailing duties,which, although they are called "non-tariff" barriers, have the effect of tariffs once they are enacted.Their use has risen sharply after the WTO rules led to a very significant reduction in tariff use. Some non-tariff trade barriers are expressly permitted in very limited circumstances, when they are deemednecessary to protect health, safety, or sanitation, or to protect depletable natural resources. In other forms, they are criticized as a means to evade free trade rules such as those of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the European Union (EU), or  North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that restrict the use of tariffs.Some of non-tariff barriers are not directly related to foreign economic regulations, but nevertheless theyhave a significant impact on foreign-economic activity and foreign trade between countries.Trade between countries is referred to trade in goods, services and factors of production. Non-tariff barriers to trade include import quotas, special licenses, unreasonable standards for the quality of goods,bureaucratic delays at customs, export restrictions, limiting the activities of state trading, exportsubsidies, countervailing duties, technical barriers to trade, sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures, rules of origin, etc. Sometimes in this list they include macroeconomic measures affecting trade.
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Six Types of Non-Tariff Barriers to Trade
1. Specific Limitations on Trade:1.Quotas 2. Import Licensing requirements 3. Proportion restrictions of foreign to domestic goods (local content requirements)4. Minimum import price limits5.Embargoes 2. Customs and Administrative Entry Procedures:1. Valuation systems2. Anti-dumping practices 3. Tariff classifications4. Documentation requirements5. Fees3. Standards:1. Standard disparities2. Intergovernmental acceptances of testing methods and standards3. Packaging, labeling, and marking4. Government Participation in Trade:1. Government procurement policies2. Export subsidies3. Countervailing duties4. Domestic assistance programs5. Charges on imports:1. Prior import deposit subsidies2. Administrative fees3. Special supplementary duties4. Import credit discrimination5. Variable levies6. Border taxes
 
6. Others:1. Voluntary export restraints2. Orderly marketing agreements[edit]
Examples of Non-Tariff Barriers to Trade
Non-tariff barriers to trade can be:
Import bans
General or product-specific quotas
Rules of Origin
Quality conditions imposed by the importing country on the exporting countries
Sanitary and phyto-sanitary conditions
Packaging conditions
Labeling conditions
Product standards
Complex regulatory environment
Determination of eligibility of an exporting country by the importing country
Determination of eligibility of an exporting establishment (firm, company) by the importing country.
Additional trade documents like Certificate of Origin, Certificate of Authenticity etc.
State subsidies,procurement, trading, state ownership 
Fixation of a minimum import price
 Foreign exchange market controls and multiplicity
Inadequate infrastructure 
"Buy national" policy
Over-valued currency
Restrictive licenses
Seasonal import regimes
Corrupt and/or lengthy customs procedures[edit]
Types of Non-Tariff Barriers
There are several different variants of division of non-tariff barriers. Some scholars divide betweeninternal taxes, administrative barriers, health and sanitary regulations and government procurementpolicies. Others divide non-tariff barriers into more categories such as specific limitations on trade,customs and administrative entry procedures, standards, government participation in trade, charges on

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