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Ch 020 Solutions-Static Electricity

Ch 020 Solutions-Static Electricity

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Physics: Principles and Problems 
Solutions Manual
413
   C  o  p  y  r   i  g   h   t   ©   G   l  e  n  c  o  e   /   M  c   G  r  a  w -   H   i   l   l ,  a   d   i  v   i  s   i  o  n  o   f   T   h  e   M  c   G  r  a  w -   H   i   l   l   C  o  m  p  a  n   i  e  s ,   I  n  c .
20
Static Electricity
CHAPTER
Section Review
20.1
Electric Chargepages
541–545
page 5451.
Charged Objects
 After a comb is rubbedon a wool sweater, it is able to pick upsmall pieces of paper. Why does the comblose that ability after a few minutes?
The comb loses its charge to its sur-roundings and becomes neutral onceagain.
2.
 Types of Charge
In the experimentsdescribed earlier in this section, how could you find out which strip of tape, B or T, ispositively charged?
Bring a positively charged glass rodnear the two strips of tape. The one thatis repelled by the rod is positive.
3.
 Types of Charge
 A pith ball is a smallsphere made of a light material, such as plas-tic foam, often coated with a layer of graphiteor aluminum paint. How could you deter-mine whether a pith ball that is suspendedfrom an insulating thread is neutral, ischarged positively, or is charged negatively?
Bring an object of known charge, suchas a negatively charged hard rubberrod, near the pith ball. If the pith ball isrepelled, it has the same charge as therod. If it is attracted, it may have theopposite charge or be neutral. To findout which, bring a positively chargedglass rod near the pith ball. If theyrepel, the pith ball is positive; if theyattract, the pith ball must be neutral.
4.
Charge Separation
 A rubber rod can becharged negatively when it is rubbed with wool. What happens to the charge of the wool? Why?
The wool becomes positively chargedbecause it gives up electrons to therubber rod.
5.
Conservation of Charge
 An apple con-tains trillions of charged particles. Why don’t two apples repel each other whenthey are brought together?
Each apple contains equal numbers ofpositive and negative charges, so theyappear neutral to each other.
6.
Charging a Conductor
Suppose you hang a long metal rod from silk threads so that the rod is isolated. You then touch acharged glass rod to one end of the metalrod. Describe the charges on the metal rod.
The glass rod attracts electrons offthe metal rod, so the metal becomespositively charged. The charge is dis-tributed uniformly along the rod.
7.
Charging by Friction
 You can charge arubber rod negatively by rubbing it with wool. What happens when you rub a cop-per rod with wool?
Because the copper is a conductor, itremains neutral as long as it is in con-tact with your hand.
8.
Critical Thinking
It once was proposedthat electric charge is a type of fluid that flows from objects with an excess of thefluid to objects with a deficit. Why is thecurrent two-charge model better than thesingle-fluid model?
The two-charge model can betterexplain the phenomena of attractionand repulsion. It also explains howobjects can become charged when theyare rubbed together. The single-fluidmodel indicated that the charge shouldbe equalized on objects that are in con-tact with each other.
 
Practice Problems
20.2
Electric Forcepages
546–553
page 5529.
 A negative charge o
Ϫ
2.0
ϫ
10
Ϫ
4
C and a positive charge of 8.0
ϫ
10
Ϫ
4
C areseparated by 0.30 m. What is the force between the two charges?
ϭ ϭϭ
1.6
ϫ
10
4
N
10.
 A negative charge o
Ϫ
6.0
ϫ
10
Ϫ
6
C exerts an attractive force of 65 N on a secondcharge that is 0.050 m away. What is the magnitude of the second charge?
ϭ
B
ϭ ϭϭ
3.0
ϫ
10
Ϫ
6
C
11.
 The charge on B in Example Problem 1 is replaced by a charge of 
ϩ
3.00
C.Diagram the new situation and find the net force on A.
Magnitudes of all forces remain the same. The direction changes to 42°above the
Ϫ
axis, or 138°.
12.
Sphere A is located at the origin and has a charge of 
ϩ
2.0
ϫ
10
Ϫ
6
C. Sphere Bis located at 
ϩ
0.60 m on the
 x
-axis and has a charge of 
Ϫ
3.6
ϫ
10
Ϫ
6
C.Sphere C is located at 
ϩ
0.80 m on the
 x
-axis and has a charge of 
ϩ
4.0
ϫ
10
Ϫ
6
C.Determine the net force on sphere A.
B on A
ϭ
ϭ
(9.0
ϫ
10
9
N
и
m
2
/C
2
)
ϭ
0.18 Ndirection: toward the right
C on A
ϭ
ϭ
(9.0
ϫ
10
9
N
и
m
2
/C
2
)
ϭ
0.1125
ϭ
Ndirection: toward the left
net
ϭ
B on A
Ϫ
C on A
ϭ
(0.18 N)
Ϫ
(0.1125 N)
ϭ
0.068 N toward the right
13.
Determine the net force on sphere B in the previous problem.
Aon B
ϭ
C on B
ϭ
net
ϭ
C on B
Ϫ
Aon B
ϭ
Ϫ
A
B
AB2
B
C
BC2
A
B
AB2
A
B
AB2
(2.0
ϫ
10
Ϫ
6
C)(4.0
ϫ
10
Ϫ
6
C)
ᎏᎏᎏᎏ
(0.80 m)
2
A
C
AC2
(2.0
ϫ
10
Ϫ
6
C)(3.6
ϫ
10
Ϫ
6
C)
ᎏᎏᎏᎏ
(0.60 m)
2
A
B
AB2
(65 N)(0.050 m)
2
ᎏᎏᎏᎏ
(9.0
ϫ
10
9
N
и
m
2
/C
2
)(6.0
ϫ
10
Ϫ
6
C)
Fd 
AB2
Kq 
A
Kq 
A
B
AB2
(9.0
ϫ
10
9
N
и
m
2
/C
2
)(2.0
ϫ
10
Ϫ
4
C)(8.0
ϫ
10
Ϫ
4
C)
ᎏᎏᎏᎏᎏᎏ
(0.30 m)
2
Kq 
A
B
AB2
414
Solutions Manual
Physics: Principles and Problems 
 C o p yi   g t ©  Gl   e n c  o e  /  M c  G a w-Hi  l  l   , a d i   vi   s i   on of   e M c  G a w-Hi  l  l   C om p ani   e  s  ,I  n c  .
Chapter 20 continued
 
Physics: Principles and Problems 
Solutions Manual
415
   C  o  p  y  r   i  g   h   t   ©   G   l  e  n  c  o  e   /   M  c   G  r  a  w -   H   i   l   l ,  a   d   i  v   i  s   i  o  n  o   f   T   h  e   M  c   G  r  a  w -   H   i   l   l   C  o  m  p  a  n   i  e  s ,   I  n  c .
ϭ
(9.0
ϫ
10
9
N
и
m
2
/C
2
)
Ϫ
(9.0
ϫ
10
9
N
и
m
2
/C
2
)
ϭ
3.1 N toward the right
Section Review
20.2
Electric Forcepages
546–553
page 55314.
Force and Charge
How are electric forceand charge related? Describe the force whenthe charges are like charges and the force when the charges are opposite charges.
Electric force is directly related to eachcharge. It is repulsive between likecharges and attractive between oppo-site charges.
15.
Force and Distance
How are electric forceand distance related? How would the forcechange if the distance between two charges were tripled?
Electric force is inversely related tothe square of the distance betweencharges. If the distance is tripled, theforce will be one-ninth as great.
16.
Electroscopes
 When an electroscope ischarged, the leaves rise to a certain angleand remain at that angle. Why do they not rise farther?
As the leaves move farther apart, theelectric force between them decreasesuntil it is balanced by the gravitationalforce pulling down on the leaves.
17.
Charging an Electroscope
Explain how tocharge an electroscope positively using 
a.
a positive rod.
Touch the positive rod to the electro-scope. Negative charges will moveto the rod, leaving the electroscopepositively charged.
b.
a negative rod.
Bring the negative rod near, but nottouching the electroscope. Touch(ground) the electroscope with yourfinger, allowing electrons to berepelled off of the electroscope intoyour finger. Remove your finger andthen remove the rod.
18.
 Attraction of Neutral Objects
 What twoproperties explain why a neutral object isattracted to both positively and negatively charged objects?
Charge separation, caused by theattraction of opposite charges and therepulsion of like charges, moves theopposite charges in the neutral bodycloser to the charged object and thelike charges farther away. The inverserelation between force and distancemeans that the nearer, oppositecharges will attract more than the moredistant, like charges will repel. Theoverall effect is attraction.
19.
Charging by Induction
In an electroscopebeing charged by induction, what happens when the charging rod is moved away beforethe ground is removed from the knob?
Charge that had been pushed into theground by the rod would return to theelectroscope from the ground, leavingthe electroscope neutral.
20.
Electric Forces
 Two charged spheres are helda distance,
r,
apart. One sphere has a charge of 
ϩ
3
C, and the other sphere has a charge of 
ϩ
9
C. Compare the force of the
ϩ
3
Csphere on the
ϩ
9
C sphere with the force of the
ϩ
9
C sphere on the
ϩ
3
C sphere.
The forces are equal in magnitude andopposite in direction.
21.
Critical Thinking
Suppose that you aretesting Coulomb’s law using a small, posi-tively charged plastic sphere and a large,positively charged metal sphere. According to Coulomb’s law, the force depends on1/
2
, where
is the distance between thecenters of the spheres. As the spheres get 
(2.0
ϫ
10
Ϫ
6
C)(3.6
ϫ
10
Ϫ
6
C)
ᎏᎏᎏᎏ
(0.60 m)
2
(3.6
ϫ
10
Ϫ
6
C)(4.0
ϫ
10
Ϫ
6
C)
ᎏᎏᎏᎏ
(0.20 m)
2
Chapter 20 continued

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