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8085 Microprocessor

8085 Microprocessor

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Published by Sudesh Kumar

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Published by: Sudesh Kumar on Sep 19, 2012
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12/06/2013

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Q1. What are the limitations of 8 bit microprocessor?Ans:Limitations of 8 bit microprocessor:
8-bit microprocessors are those which have 8-bit central processing unit.Eight-bit CPU normally uses an 8-bit data bus and a 16-bit address bus which means that their address space is limited to 64 KB (220 byte).16 bit or more are processed by making the groups of 8 bit.Eight-bit architecture; many applications require greater precision than is provided by eight bits.Analogue data is usually represented by 12-14 bits. While multi-byte arithmetic is possible itimmediately introduces a large reduction in speed.Limited address space; The 8-bit address bus limits memory space to 32kBytes. This can beincreased using bank switching but this is not an elegant solution and still limits the size of individual programs. It is not uncommon for computer systems to have 8MBytes of memory nowthat reductions in cost of memory devices have made this economic.Limited address registers; only having 2 address registers can be a problem where manipulatingtables of data is concerned.Limited number of data registers; only having 2 data registers means that data being manipulatedoften resides in memory. The resulting memory accesses degrade the performance.
----------------------------------------------Q2. Compare the 8 bit microprocessors 8080A and 8085?Ans:FEATURES80858080ADescription
It is an 8 bit microprocessor.It is manufactured with N-MOStechnology.The Intel 8080 was the second8-bit microprocessor designedand manufactured.
Programming model
As in many other 8-bit processors, all instructions areencoded in a single byte(including register-numbers, but excluding immediate data),for simplicity. Some of themIt uses the same basicinstruction set as the 8008 andsource code compatible with its predecessor, but added somehandy 16-bit operations to theinstruction set as well. The
 
are followed by one or two bytes of data, which could bean immediate operand, amemory address, or a portnumber.8080's large 40-pin DIP packaging permitted it to provide a 16-bit address bus andan 8-bit data bus, allowing easyaccess to 64 kilobytes of memory.
Registers
The processor has seven 8-bitregisters accessible to the programmer, named A, B, C,D, E, H, and L. Someinstructions use HL as a(limited) 16-bit accumulator.As in the 8080, the contents of the memory address pointed to by HL could be accessed as pseudo register M.The processor has seven 8-bitregisters, (A, B, C, D, E, H, andL) where A is the 8-bitaccumulator and the other sixcould be used as either byte-registers or as three 16-bitregister pairs (BC, DE, HL)depending on the particular instruction.
Commands/instructions
Like larger processors, it hasCALL and RETS instructionsfor multi-level procedure callsand returns (which can beconditionally executed, like jumps) and instructions to saveand restore any 16-bit register- pair on the machine stack.There are also eight one-bytecall instructions (RST) for subroutines located at the fixedaddresses 00h, 08h, 10h, and38h.As with many other 8-bit processors, all instructions areencoded in a single byte(including register-numbers, butexcluding immediate data), for simplicity. Some of them arefollowed by one or two bytes of data, which could be animmediate operand, a memoryaddress, or a port number.
8-bit instructions
Most 8-bit operations work onthe 8-bit accumulator.Due to the regular encoding of the MOV-instruction (using aquarter of available opcodespace) there are redundantcodes to copy a register intoitself (MOV B,B, for instance),which are of little use, exceptMost 8-bit operations can only be performed on the 8-bitaccumulator (the A register).For dyadic 8-bit operations, i.e.8-bit operations with twooperands, the other operandcould be either an immediatevalue, another 8-bit register, or amemory cell addressed by the
 
for delays.16-bit register pair HL
16-bit operations
Subtraction and bitwise logicaloperations on 16 bits is done in8-bit steps. Operations thathave to be implemented by program code (subroutinelibraries) included comparisonsof signed integers as well asmultiply and divide.Although the 8080 is generallyan 8-bit processor, it also havelimited abilities to perform 16- bit operations: Any of the three16-bit register pairs (BC, DE,HL) or SP can be loaded with animmediate 16-bit value ,incremented or decremented. Byadding HL to itself, it is possibleto achieve the same result as a16-bit arithmetical left shift withone instruction
----------------------------------------------Q3 Why address bus is unidirectional and data bus is bidirectional?Ans:ADDRESS BUSDATA BUS
The address bus unidirectional because theaddress is transferred only between the cpu andmemory.Data bus is bidirectional because it transfersinformation between processor/controller andmemory device.High OrderLow OrdeAn address bus is a computer bus (a series of lines connecting two or more devices) that isused to specify a physical address.A Data Bus is a subsystem that transfers data between computer components inside acomputer or between computers.When a processor or DMA-enabled deviceneeds to read or write to a memory location, itspecifies that memory location on the address bus (the value to be read or written is sent onthe data bus).Connects all the internal components of acomputer, such as CPU and memory, to themotherboard.
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