that typify audiences. Some theories identify needs that are physiologically based, suchas our needs for the staples of survival and physical security, which go back tomankind’s very beginings.Our needs make us vulnerable to persuasion, and effective persuaderssuccesfully determine our needs. If they analyze our needs incorrectly, persuasion can boomerang.
The hidden needs that Packard desribed were discovered using the depthinterview or the projective test.
1.Need for Emotional Security
When we need permanence, we face unpredictable change, and that makes usvulnerable to persuasion aimed at assuring or reassuring us of some semblance of security.2.
Need for Reassurance of Worth
People need to feel that they make difference. This need forms the basis of many persuasive appeals by volunteer organizations and companies. Mostcontemporary Americans see themselves in a race for material good, prestigem power, and influence. And in this race they separate themselves from other and findlittle emotional security.
3.Need for Ego Gratification
Not only need to be reassured of their basic worth but also needed their egos
as if they ally special. This need for ego gratification can come from avariety source. Persuader often identify a group whose member feel they have been put down for some time. It is easy to sell product, ideas, or candidate by hookinginto the out group’s ego needs in personal ways that appeal to an individual;s self- perception.
4.Need for Creative Outlet