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Development of Nervous System

Development of Nervous System

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Published by: Fajar Rudy Qimindra on Sep 20, 2012
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Development of Nervous System :Embryology
 August 11, 2010 | 10:12 pm | 
 Nervous system is one of the earliest systems to begin development and the last to be completed after birth.
The entire
 
nervous system develops from the ectoderm.
 
Ectoderm forms the neural plate during 3rd week of development. Neural groove forms in the midlineof the neural plate, either side of which are the neural folds. Groove continues to deepen until aboutweek 4. Neural folds begins to fuse and form neural tube. Neural tube consists of 2 openings :1.
 
Cranial (anterior) neuropore2.
 
Caudal (posterior neuropore): The cranial neuropore closes earlier than the caudal neuropore.
The enlarged cranial part of the neural tube forms brain and the caudal tubular part forms the spinalcord.
A population of cells at the edge of the neural plate that lie dorsally when the neural tube fusesforms the neural crest and it lies dorsal to the neural tube, as a pair of streaks.
 
 Derivatives of neural crest:
 
 
 Adrenal medulla
 
 
Pia and arachnoid sheath
 
 
 Dorsal root ganglion
 
 
 
Craniofacial skeleton
 
 
 
 Melanocytes
 
 
Schwann cells
 
 
Odontoblast 
 
 
Thyroid parafollicular cells
 
 
 
Symphatetic ganglia
 
 
 
Parasymphatetic ganglia
 
Fates of cranial part of neural tube:
 1. Forebrain vesicle
 – 
> Prosencephalon
 
telencephalon
 – 
cerebral hemisphere
 
 
diencephalon
 – 
thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus2. Midbrain vesicle
 – 
> Mesencephalon: Tectum, tegmentum, substantia nigra, crus cerebri3. Hindbrain vesicle
 – 
> Rhombencephalon
 
Metencephalon
 – 
pons and cerebellum
 
Myelencephalon
 – 
Formation of basal and alar plate:
 
 
The wall of the neural tube consists of a single layer of pesudostratified columnar epithelial cells,called matrix cells.
 
Matrix cells rapidly divide and form neuroblasts and glioblasts.
 
 Neuroblasts give rise to following layers:
 
 
 
 Mantle (intermediate zone)
 
 
 Marginal (Layer external to mantle)
 
 
 Mantle further forms 2 areas separated by sulcus limitans:
 
 
 
 Basal lamina or plate (ventrally)
 – 
motor 
 
 
 
 Alar lamina or plate (dorsally)
 – 
sensory
 
Glioblasts give rise to:
 
 
 
 Astrocytes
 
 
 
Oligodendrocytes
 
 
 
 Microglial cells
 
 
 
 Ependymal cells (arise from matrix cells that line neural tube)
 
Development of spinal cord:
 
 
Neuroblasts of basal plate (motor) forms motor cells of anterior gray column and their axonforms anterior nerve root of spinal nerves.
 
Neuroblasts of alar plate (sensory) forms sensory cells of posterior gray column and interneurons.
 
Neural crest cells migrate posterolaterally on each side of spinal cord and give rise to dorsal rootganglia and dorsal root of spinal nerves.
 
Progressive growth of basal plate on either side forms anterior median fissure
 
Progressive growth of alar plate on either side forms posterior median septum and central canal(form lumen of neural tube)
Medulla oblongata:
 
 
Develops from myelencephalon
 
As a result of expasion of 4th ventricle, alar plates come to lie lateral to basal plate.
 
Neurons of basal plate form
motor nuclei of cranial nerves (IX,X,XI,XII)
in medulla.
 
Neurons of alar plate form
sensory nuclei of cranial nerves in medulla (V,VIII,IX,X 
) in medulla.
 
Remaining cells of alar plate migrate ventrolaterally to form olivary nuclei.
Pons:
 
 
Develops from ventral part of metencephalon.
 
It has also cellular contributions from the alar part of the Myelencephalon.
 
Basal plate forms : the
motor nuclei of cranial nerves (V,VI,VII 
).
 
Alar plate forms :
Sensory nucleus (V,VII), Vestibulo-cochlear nuclei (VIII) and pontine nuclei
.
 
Axons of the pontine nuclei go to the developing cerebellum of the opposite side (Rhombic lip)& form transverse pontine fibers and middle cerebellar peduncle.
Cerebellum:
 
 
 
Develops from dorsal part of metencephalon.
 
On each side, alar plate bends medially to form the
rhombic lip
 
 
Right and left rhombic lip grows caudally and fuses with across midline forming cerebellum
 
At 12th week: small midline portion differentiates into
vermis
and 2 lateral portion differentiatesinto
cerebellar hemispheres
 
 
Migration of neuroblasts from matrix cells in ventricular zone to cerebellum leads to formation of cerebellar cortex.
 
Neuroblasts remaining close to ventricular surface forms
cerebellar nuclei
(d,e,g,f = dentate,emboliform, globose, fastigii)
Midbrain:
 
 
Develops from mesencephalon.
 
Cavity of mesencephalon remains narrow to form cerebral aqueduct.
 Basal plate forms:
 a) Motor nuclei of the 3rd & 4th cranial nervesb) Red nucleic) Substantia nigrad) Reticular formation
 
The marginal zone of basal plates on each side enlarges to form basis pedunculi (The descendingmotor tracts are situated in that region
 – 
Cortico pontine, corticobulbar & corticospinal tracts)
 
The 2 alar plates & the roof plate forms the Tectum.
 
The alar plate forms the sensory neurons of the
superior & inferior colliculi
.
Cerebral Hemisphere:
 
 
Starts developing at 5th week.
 
Thickening of the walls lead to reduction of intraventricular foramen.
Cerebral hemispheres grow & expand:
 
 
 A
nteriorly : Form frontal lobes (1st)
 
Laterally & superiorly : Parietal lobes (2nd)
 
Posteriorly & inferiorly : occipital & temporal lobes (Last)
 
Falx cerebri and flax cerebellum is formed by the condensation of mesenchyme betweenhemispheres.
Cerebral cortex:
 
 
Develops from telencephalon.
 
Migration of cells from mantle layer to marginal layer
 – 
>surface expansion
 – 
>cortex folds onitself 
 – 
>formation of sulci and gyri
 
By development cortex are of 3 types: hippocampal, pyriform and neocortex.
 At the 12th week, cortex become very cellular due to migrating neuroblasts; different areas of thecortex will show specific cell types due to the influence of the ascending & descending tracts
 
 
Motor cortex : Pyramidal cells
 
Sensory areas : Granular cells
Corpus striatum:
 
 
Develops from telencephalon.
 
Remaining cells of mantle layer forms
caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus
.
 
Many axons from ascending & descending tracts that pass between the thalamus & caudatenucleus medially and lentiform nucleus laterally as a bundle forms
internal capsule
.
 
Similarly, cortical projections lateral to lentiform nuclei forms
external capsule
.
Thalamus and hypothalamus:
 
 
Develops from diencephalon.
 
Diencephalon is divided by
epithalamic sulcus
and
hypothalamic sulcus
into 3 surfaces.
 
Part above epithalamic sulcus forms epithalamus (habenular nuclei and pineal body)
 
Middle part forms the thalamus.
 
Part below hypothalamic sulcus forms hypothalamus.
Commisures:
 
 
 Lamina terminalis
(The cephalic end of the neural tube) forms a bridge between the 2 cerebralhemispheres.
Optic chiasma
is formed by inferior part of lamina terminalis.

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