Environment New York Research & Policy Center sincerely thanks Emily Wurth o Foodand Water Watch, Martin Levin o Stern Shapiro Weissberg & Garin, and JonathanShetz o JShetz Consulting or their review o drats o this document, as well as theirinsights and suggestions. Thanks also to Erika Staa o PennEnvironment Research &Policy Center and Luke Metzger o Environment Texas Research & Policy Center ortheir perspectives and contributions.Environment New York Research & Policy Center thanks the Colcom Foundation ormaking this report possible. The authors bear responsibility or any actual errors. The recommendations are thoseo Environment New York Research & Policy Center. The views expressed in this report are those o the authors and do not necessarily reect the views o our unders or those who provided review.© 2012 Environment New York Research & Policy CenterEnvironment New York Research & Policy Center is a 501(c)(3) organization. We arededicated to protecting our air, water and open spaces. We investigate problems, crat solutions, educate the public and decision-makers, and help the public make their voicesheard in local, state and national debates over the quality o our environment and our lives.For more inormation about Environment New York Research & Policy Center or or ad-ditional copies o this report, please visit www.environmentnewyorkcenter.org.Frontier Group conducts independent research and policy analysis to support a cleaner,healthier and more democratic society. Our mission is to inject accurate inormation andcompelling ideas into public policy debates at the local, state and ederal levels. For moreinormation about Frontier Group, please visit www.rontiergroup.org.Layout: Harriet Eckstein Design
Photo Credits: Main cover photo: Robert Donnan; Photos used on inset o cover, as icons and in inographics: Boy drinking water, Ken Bosma, ickr, Creative Commons; Construction Roadwork, Doug Tone, ickr, Creative Com-mons; Doctor and Patient, AntoAB, cc, ickr, Creative Commons; House or Sale, David Smith, ickr, CreativeCommons; Fracking rom Above, Allegheny Deense Project. Note that these photos are intended to illustrate therelevant concepts, not to provide editorial content or to represent any specifc activity described in the report.