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Lect-IV Vector Space

Lect-IV Vector Space

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Published by Abhijit Kar Gupta
This is the 4th set of lecture notes on Vector Space/ Linear Algebra for Physics students. Formal introduction with examples, intend to cover a part of mathematical methods course for M.Sc and B.Sc phys students.
This is the 4th set of lecture notes on Vector Space/ Linear Algebra for Physics students. Formal introduction with examples, intend to cover a part of mathematical methods course for M.Sc and B.Sc phys students.

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Published by: Abhijit Kar Gupta on Sep 20, 2012
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11/06/2012

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Lecture Notes IV compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com
 
1
Lecture on Vector Space: Lecture Set IV
[In this Lecture set, we discuss
inner products, orthogonality
, different 
Unitary
and
Hermitian
operators, applications and all that. ]
Some important ideas:
 
Orthogonal Diagonalizability of a real Symmetric Matrix
Consider a real matrix
 
 

 
 
 
 

 For orthogonal matrix,

 
 
 
 
 
 


 Thus the matrix
 
is
symmetric
!
Note:
 
If a real matrix is diagonalizable by an orthogonal matrix, it is symmetric.
 
Similarity Transform and Characteristic Equation:
 
Lecture Notes IV compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com
 
2
Consider two similar matrices,
 
and
:

 
 


 
 



 



 



 Thus the similar matrices have same characteristic polynomials.
Operations with
UNITARY Matrix
 
Preliminaries:
In our previous lecture, we defined the inner product on complex vector space.

, for complex numbers,


 
 
, for complex matrices.For Unitary Matrices (usually complex),


,

 



=


 #
Examples:
 
√ 
./
 
√ 
./
 
 

√ 
./
 
 

√ 
./
√ 
./
././
 
Note:
The product of two unitary matrices is a unitary matrix. The inverse of a unitary matrix isanother unitary matrix. Identity matrix is unitary. The unitary matrices form a group called
unitary group
.Consider a special unitary matrix,
(


)
, where the determinant,

 

(


)
 

(


)(


)./
 These
special unitary matrices form a
special unitary group
: SU(2)
 
Lecture Notes IV compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com
 
3
 
The Eigenvalues of a Unitary Matrix are equal to unity:
Let us consider
be an eigenvector corresponding to the eigenvalue
of the unitarymatrix,
.
 


||

 Therefore,
||
 
 
||
 
 
Inner Product is preserved due to operation of Unitary Matrix
Let us suppose,
,
,
,…
correspond to the orthogonal eigenvectors(independent)
,
,
,…
. Also assume, for every
,
|
|
.Take any vector
and expand it in terms of the orthogonal basis formed by theeigenvectors.
 


,
-
 
 
|
|
|
|
 

 
 
, this means
is unitary.Further, let us consider two vectors,
and
.


 Now consider,
,
,
,…
that form an orthonormal basis:
and
 

 Now,


[Assume,

]Also,

 
 

 
|
|
 If now
,
,
,…
forma orthonormal basis,
|
|
for each
.

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