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1.1 Applied mathematics
1.2 Rigor
1.2.1 Axiom and deﬁnition
1.2.2 Mathematical extension
1.3. COMPLEX NUMBERS AND COMPLEX VARIABLES 5
1.3 Complex numbers and complex variables
1.4 On the text
2.1 Basic arithmetic relationships
2.1.2 Negative numbers
2.1.4 The change of variable
2.3 Integer and series notation
2.4 The arithmetic series
2.5 Powers and roots
2.5.1 Notation and integral powers
2.5.2 Roots
2.5.3 Powers of products and powers of powers
2.5.4 Sums of powers
2.6. MULTIPLYING AND DIVIDING POWER SERIES 23
2.5.5 Summary and remarks
2.6 Multiplying and dividing power series
2.6.1 Multiplying power series
2.6.2 Dividing power series
2.6.3 Dividing power series by matching coeﬃcients
2.6.5 Variations on the geometric series
2.8 Exponentials and logarithms
2.8.1 The logarithm
2.8.2 Properties of the logarithm
2.9 Triangles and other polygons: simple facts
2.9.1 The area of a triangle
2.9.2 The triangle inequalities
2.9.3 The sum of interior angles
2.10 The Pythagorean theorem
2.11 Functions
2.12 Complex numbers (introduction)
2.12.2 Complex conjugation
2.12.3 Power series and analytic functions (preview)
Trigonometry
3.1 Deﬁnitions
3.2 Simple properties
3.3 Scalars, vectors, and vector notation
3.4 Rotation
3.5.1 Variations on the sums and diﬀerences
3.5.2 Trigonometric functions of double and half angles
3.7 The laws of sines and cosines
3.8 Summary of properties
3.9 Cylindrical and spherical coordinates
3.10. THE COMPLEX TRIANGLE INEQUALITIES 69
3.10 The complex triangle inequalities
3.11 De Moivre’s theorem
The derivative
4.1 Inﬁnitesimals and limits
4.1.1 The inﬁnitesimal
4.1.2 Limits
4.2 Combinatorics
4.2.1 Combinations and permutations
4.2.2 Pascal’s triangle
4.3 The binomial theorem
4.3.1 Expanding the binomial
4.3.2 Powers of numbers near unity
4.3.3 Complex powers of numbers near unity
4.4 The derivative
4.4.1 The derivative of the power series
4.4.2 The Leibnitz notation
4.4.3 The derivative of a function of a complex variable
4.4.4 The derivative of za
4.4.5 The logarithmic derivative
4.5. BASIC MANIPULATION OF THE DERIVATIVE 87
4.5 Basic manipulation of the derivative
4.5.1 The derivative chain rule
4.5.2 The derivative product rule
4.5.3 A derivative product pattern
4.6 Extrema and higher derivatives
4.7 L’Hˆopital’s rule
4.8 The Newton-Raphson iteration
The complex exponential
5.1 The real exponential
5.2 The natural logarithm
5.3 Fast and slow functions
5.4 Euler’s formula
5.6 Complex trigonometrics
5.6.1 The hyperbolic functions
5.6.2 Inverse complex trigonometrics
5.7 Summary of properties
5.8 Derivatives of complex exponentials
5.8.1 Derivatives of sine and cosine
5.8.2 Derivatives of the trigonometrics
5.8.3 Derivatives of the inverse trigonometrics
5.9 The actuality of complex quantities
Primes, roots and averages
6.1 Prime numbers
6.1.1 The inﬁnite supply of primes
6.1.2 Compositional uniqueness
6.1.3 Rational and irrational numbers
6.2.1 Polynomial roots
6.2.2 The fundamental theorem of algebra
6.3.2 Averages
The integral
7.1 The concept of the integral
7.1.1 An introductory example
7.3.5 Multiple integrals
7.4 Areas and volumes
7.4.1 The area of a circle
7.4.2 The volume of a cone
7.4.3 The surface area and volume of a sphere
7.5 Checking an integration
7.6 Contour integration
7.7 Discontinuities
7.8 Remarks (and exercises)
The Taylor series
8.1 The power-series expansion of 1/(1−z)n+1
8.1.1 The formula
8.1.2 The proof by induction
8.1.3 Convergence
8.1.4 General remarks on mathematical induction
8.2 Shifting a power series’ expansion point
8.3. EXPANDING FUNCTIONS IN TAYLOR SERIES 167
8.3 Expanding functions in Taylor series
8.4 Analytic continuation
8.5 Branch points
8.6 Entire and meromorphic functions
of entire and meromorphic functions.11
8.7 Extrema over a complex domain
8.8 Cauchy’s integral formula
8.8.1 The meaning of the symbol dz
8.8.2 Integrating along the contour
8.8.3 The formula
8.8.4 Enclosing a multiple pole
8.9 Taylor series for speciﬁc functions
8.10 Error bounds
8.10.1 Examples
8.10.2 Majorization
8.10.3 Geometric majorization
8.10.4 Calculation outside the fast convergence domain
8.10.5 Nonconvergent series
8.10.6 Remarks
8.11 Calculating 2π
8.12 Odd and even functions
8.13 Trigonometric poles
8.14 The Laurent series
8.15 Taylor series in 1/z
8.16. THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL TAYLOR SERIES 201
8.16 The multidimensional Taylor series
Integration techniques
9.1 Integration by antiderivative
9.2 Integration by substitution
9.3 Integration by parts
9.4 Integration by unknown coeﬃcients
9.5 Integration by closed contour
9.6. INTEGRATION BY PARTIAL-FRACTION EXPANSION 215
9.6 Integration by partial-fraction expansion
9.6.1 Partial-fraction expansion
9.6.2 Repeated poles
9.6.3 Integrating a rational function
9.6.4 The derivatives of a rational function
9.6.5 Repeated poles (the conventional technique)
9.6.6 The existence and uniqueness of solutions
9.7 Frullani’s integral
9.9 Integration by Taylor series
Cubics and quartics
10.1 Vieta’s transform
10.2 Cubics
10.3 Superﬂuous roots
10.4 Edge cases
10.5 Quartics
10.6 Guessing the roots
Matrices and vectors
The matrix
11.1 Provenance and basic use
11.1.1 The linear transformation
11.1.3 Row and column operators
11.1.4 The transpose and the adjoint
11.2 The Kronecker delta
11.3 Dimensionality and matrix forms
11.3.1 The null and dimension-limited matrices
11.3.3 The active region
11.3.4 Other matrix forms
11.3.5 The rank-r identity matrix
11.3.6 The truncation operator
11.3.7 The elementary vector and the lone-element matrix
11.3.8 Oﬀ-diagonal entries
11.4 The elementary operator
11.4.1 Properties
11.4.2 Commutation and sorting
11.5 Inversion and similarity (introduction)
11.6 Parity
11.7 The quasielementary operator
11.8 The unit triangular matrix
11.8.1 Construction
11.8.2 The product of like unit triangular matrices
11.8.3 Inversion
11.8.4 The parallel unit triangular matrix
11.8.5 The partial unit triangular matrix
11.9 The shift operator
11.10 The Jacobian derivative
12.1 Linear independence
12.2 The elementary similarity transformation
12.3 The Gauss-Jordan decomposition
12.3.1 Motive
12.3.2 Method
12.3.3 The algorithm
12.3.4 Rank and independent rows
12.3.5 Inverting the factors
12.3.6 Truncating the factors
12.3.7 Properties of the factors
12.3.8 Marginalizing the factor In
12.3.9 Decomposing an extended operator
12.4 Vector replacement
12.5 Rank
12.5.1 A logical maneuver
12.5.2 The impossibility of identity-matrix promotion
12.5.3 General matrix rank and its uniqueness
12.5.4 The full-rank matrix
12.5.5 Underdetermined and overdetermined linear systems (introduction)
12.5.6 The full-rank factorization
12.5.8 The signiﬁcance of rank uniqueness
13.1 Inverting the square matrix
13.2 The exactly determined linear system
13.3 The kernel
13.3.1 The Gauss-Jordan kernel formula
13.3.2 Converting between kernel matrices
13.3.3 The degree of freedom
13.4 The nonoverdetermined linear system
13.4.1 Particular and homogeneous solutions
13.4.2 A particular solution
13.4.3 The general solution
13.5 The residual
13.6. THE PSEUDOINVERSE AND LEAST SQUARES 347
13.6.1 Least squares in the real domain
13.6.2 The invertibility of A∗A
13.6.3 Positive deﬁniteness
13.6.4 The Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse
13.7 The multivariate Newton-Raphson iteration
13.8 The dot product
13.9. THE COMPLEX VECTOR TRIANGLE INEQUALITIES 359
13.9 The complex vector triangle inequalities
13.10. THE ORTHOGONAL COMPLEMENT 361
13.10 The orthogonal complement
13.11 Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization
13.11.1 Eﬃcient implementation
13.11.2 The Gram-Schmidt decomposition
13.11.3 The Gram-Schmidt kernel formula
13.12 The unitary matrix
14.3 The eigenvalue itself
14.4 The eigenvector
14.5 Eigensolution facts
14.6 Diagonalization
14.7 Remarks on the eigenvalue
14.8 Matrix condition
14.9 The similarity transformation
14.10. THE SCHUR DECOMPOSITION 393
14.10 The Schur decomposition
14.10.1 Derivation
14.10.2 The nondiagonalizable matrix
14.11 The Hermitian matrix
14.12. THE SINGULAR-VALUE DECOMPOSITION 405
14.12 The singular-value decomposition
14.13. GENERAL REMARKS ON THE MATRIX 407
14.13 General remarks on the matrix
Vector analysis
15.1 Reorientation
15.1.1 The Tait-Bryan rotations
The notation
15.4.2 Einstein’s summation convention
15.4.3 The Kronecker delta and the Levi-Civita epsilon
15.5 Algebraic identities
15.6 Isotropy
15.7 Parabolic coordinates
15.7.1 The parabola
15.7.2 Parabolic coordinates in two dimensions
15.7.3 Properties
15.7.4 The parabolic cylindrical coordinate system
15.7.5 The circular paraboloidal coordinate system
Vector calculus
16.1 Fields and their derivatives
16.1.1 The ∇ operator
16.1.2 Operator notation
16.1.3 The directional derivative and the gradient
16.1.4 Divergence
16.1.5 Curl
16.1.6 Cross-directional derivatives
16.2 Integral forms
16.2.1 The divergence theorem
16.2.2 Stokes’ theorem
16.3 Summary of deﬁnitions and identities of vec-
16.5 Contour derivative product rules
16.6 Metric coeﬃcients
16.6.1 Displacements, areas and volumes
16.6.2 The vector ﬁeld and its scalar components
16.7 Nonrectangular notation
16.8. DERIVATIVES OF THE BASIS VECTORS 469
16.8 Derivatives of the basis vectors
16.9 Derivatives in the nonrectangular systems
16.9.1 Derivatives in cylindrical coordinates
16.9.2 Derivatives in spherical coordinates
16.9.3 Finding the derivatives geometrically
16.10 Vector inﬁnitesimals
The Fourier series
17.4.4 Linearity and suﬃciency
17.4.5 The trigonometric form
17.5 The sine-argument function
17.5.1 Derivative and integral
17.5.2 Properties of the sine-argument function
17.5.3 Properties of the sine integral
17.5.4 The sine integral’s limit by complex contour
17.6 Gibbs’ phenomenon
18.1 The Fourier transform
18.1.1 Fourier’s equation
18.1.2 The transform and inverse transform
18.1.3 The complementary variables of transformation
18.2. PROPERTIES OF THE FOURIER TRANSFORM 519
18.1.4 An example
18.2 Properties of the Fourier transform
18.2.1 Duality
18.2.2 Real and imaginary parts
18.2.3 The Fourier transform of the Dirac delta
18.2.4 Shifting, scaling and diﬀerentiation
18.2.5 Convolution and correlation
18.2.6 Parseval’s theorem
18.2.7 Oddness and evenness
18.3 The Fourier transforms of selected functions
18.4. THE FOURIER TRANSFORM OF INTEGRATION 535
18.4 The Fourier transform of the integration op-
18.5 The Gaussian pulse
18.6 The Laplace transform
18.7 Solving diﬀerential equations by Laplace
18.8 Initial and ﬁnal values by Laplace
18.9. THE SPATIAL FOURIER TRANSFORM 547
18.9 The spatial Fourier transform
19.1 The Gaussian pulse and its moments
Probability
20.1 Deﬁnitions and basic concepts
20.2. THE STATISTICS OF A DISTRIBUTION 555
20.2 The statistics of a distribution
20.3 The sum of random variables
20.4 The transformation of a random variable
20.5 The normal distribution
20.6 Inference of statistics
20.7 The random walk and its consequences
20.7.1 The random walk
20.7.2 Consequences
20.8 Other distributions
20.8.1 The uniform distribution
20.8.2 The exponential distribution
The exponential distribution is9
20.8.3 The Rayleigh distribution
20.8.4 The Maxwell distribution
20.8.5 The log-normal distribution
20.9 The Box-Muller transformation
20.10. THE NORMAL CDF AT LARGE ARGUMENTS 573
20.11 The normal quantile
Appendices
A.2 Avoiding notational clutter
The Greek alphabet
P. 1
Derivations of Applied Mathematics

# Derivations of Applied Mathematics

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