d-Din. These are our two most completesources for the history of Central Asia at thisperiod. The manuscript which
describe hereshows that the Mongolian princes of Persia didnot confine their favour to the historians whodealt with the chronicles of their own time
theyextended their patronage also to purely scientificworks.Mr. Pierpont Morgan's Bestiarium is included,therefore,in the series of manuscripts, unfortunatelyonly too few, which give us a knowledge of whatmay be called the primitive period of Persianpainting. We pointed out last year (The Rz~rliiagtolzMagazine, Vol.
Nov., 1912) whichwere the manuscripts at present known to beearlier than the 15th century. As we then saw,one of the sources of Persian art is to befound in Byzantine art. The manuscript ofDioscorides dated
Trait6 des Automates
(concerning thedate of which
Bzirli~zgto~t lagazil~e pub-lished
note of mine in Vol.
p. 49, April,1913) show the indisputable influence of Byzantineart."The History of the Califs
translated by A1Barlaini, minister to Samanides at Roukhara in
dates probably from the first quarter ofthe 13th century.Here again Byzantine influenceis noticeable, but much less obvious than in thetwo works already mentioned.
The History ofthe Califs
gives us a very clear idea of whatPersian painting was like at the time when thepotters of Rhagks were making the admirablepolychrome faience with which we are familiar
and more than one point of similarity may benoted between the art of the potters and the style ofthe miniatures in "The History of the Calils". The
Kalila ed Dimna
a manuscript which belongspartly to me and partly to
Vignier, is a collectionof the fables
Bidbay, written in Naskhi bythe copyist Yahia ben Muhammad ben Yahia, sur-named the Djeddi Roudi. The date is
pointed out the importance ofthis manuscript in advancing our knowledge ofPersian art, because the miniatures of the
Kalilaed Dimna" show no trace of Byzantine influetic?.We have in them an affirmation of the purely
CUPBOARDS, ETC. (co:iti~zzled)
oak cupboard [PLATE,
ofEnglish workmanship, is the propertyof Mr. Alfred de Lafontaine, who pur-chased it from an old house atSalisbury. The two sculptured headsenge-shaped medallions of the upperdoors are treated
a manner derived from
Iranian element in the art of Central Asia.then remarked
This P~rsian lement has been tinged with influences ofthe extreme East, apparently in Transrxiana, which \vnsthen Mongol
but from the moment
its appearance it isdidinct from Chinese and every other art
it has alreadyjust that quality which makes the charm and grandeur ofPersian art.
The miniatures of Mr. Pierpont Morgan'sBestiarium belong to the same series as the
We are here in the presence of anart which is quite indigenous to central Asia andto Persia. Certain analogies to the art of ChineseTilrkestan and to the art of the Sung may nodoubt be found in it, but they are very distant.
direct copying there is no evidence
butone may find sometimes liberal interpretations ofprocesses, there is no question of po~zcifs, uch asare found in Chinese art.
the whole Mr.Pierpont Morgan's Bestiariumshows a magnificentoriginality and a force in style and drawingwhich has rarely been equalled. This strength isespecially apparent in the interpretation of animallife. It is my positive opinion that two or perhapseven three miniaturists collaborated in the work.The greatest among them is the one who made thedrawings reproduced in this number of Tlze Burling-to12 hfagazi~ze. The two interlocking elephants arefor grandeur of style and for unrivalled simplicity
execution undoubtedly one of the finest pagesin the manuscript. As cau be judged by theCOLOUR-PLATE,t is a memorable page, and
donot think that any animal artists in the East haveever equalled it. To find its equal it would benecessary to search among those rare and preciousbronze plaques of animal life which are classified,for lack of a better title, under the hexding
'I'he other drawings which wereproduce here are certainly by the same handand of the same quality.I would draw especialattention to the curious drawing of the rocksbehind the two small running ibexes [PLATE 111,which is directly related to the Chinese treatmentof mountains in the Sung period. In a sub-sequent article in
B~trlirzgton Afagazirzereproductions will be published of sorne of theminiatures from the same manuscript which wereprobably drawn by another artist.Fran~ois
work.With the exception of thesefeatures, the rest of this example is severelysimple and exhibits no ornament but conventionalGothic foliage of a traditional type, with serratededges, but scarcely any attempt at modelling. Thetwo drawers in the middle, as in the case of themore elaborate cupboard illustrated
TheBt~rliizgtottMagazine for April, should be noted,