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Early Furniture x

Early Furniture x

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Published by birds_eye
Medieval and renaissance furniture.
Medieval and renaissance furniture.

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Published by: birds_eye on Sep 21, 2012
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Early Furniture-X: Cupboards, Etc. (Continued)
Aymer Vallance
The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs
, Vol. 23, No. 124. (Jul., 1913), pp. 231-233.
The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs
is currently published by The Burlington Magazine Publications, Ltd..Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available athttp://www.jstor.org/about/terms.html. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtainedprior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content inthe JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained athttp://www.jstor.org/journals/bmpl.html.Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printedpage of such transmission.The JSTOR Archive is a trusted digital repository providing for long-term preservation and access to leading academic journals and scholarly literature from around the world. The Archive is supported by libraries, scholarly societies, publishers,and foundations. It is an initiative of JSTOR, a not-for-profit organization with a mission to help the scholarly community takeadvantage of advances in technology. For more information regarding JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.http://www.jstor.orgTue Nov 20 08:39:49 2007
 
I
d-Din. These are our two most completesources for the history of Central Asia at thisperiod. The manuscript which
I
describe hereshows that the Mongolian princes of Persia didnot confine their favour to the historians whodealt with the chronicles of their own time
;
theyextended their patronage also to purely scientificworks.Mr. Pierpont Morgan's Bestiarium is included,therefore,in the series of manuscripts, unfortunatelyonly too few, which give us a knowledge of whatmay be called the primitive period of Persianpainting. We pointed out last year (The Rz~rliiagtolzMagazine, Vol.
XXII,
No.
116,
Nov., 1912) whichwere the manuscripts at present known to beearlier than the 15th century. As we then saw,one of the sources of Persian art is to befound in Byzantine art. The manuscript ofDioscorides dated
819
A.H.,
I222
A.D.
andthe
"
Trait6 des Automates
"
(concerning thedate of which
The
Bzirli~zgto~t lagazil~e pub-lished
a
note of mine in Vol.
XXIII,
p. 49, April,1913) show the indisputable influence of Byzantineart."The History of the Califs
",
translated by A1Barlaini, minister to Samanides at Roukhara in
352
A.H.,
dates probably from the first quarter ofthe 13th century.Here again Byzantine influenceis noticeable, but much less obvious than in thetwo works already mentioned.
"
The History ofthe Califs
"
gives us a very clear idea of whatPersian painting was like at the time when thepotters of Rhagks were making the admirablepolychrome faience with which we are familiar
;
and more than one point of similarity may benoted between the art of the potters and the style ofthe miniatures in "The History of the Calils". The
"
Kalila ed Dimna
'I,
a manuscript which belongspartly to me and partly to
M.
Vignier, is a collectionof the fables
of
Bidbay, written in Naskhi bythe copyist Yahia ben Muhammad ben Yahia, sur-named the Djeddi Roudi. The date is
633
A.H.,
1236
A.D.
I
pointed out the importance ofthis manuscript in advancing our knowledge ofPersian art, because the miniatures of the
"
Kalilaed Dimna" show no trace of Byzantine influetic?.We have in them an affirmation of the purely
EARLY FURNITURE-X
BY
AYMER VALLANCE
CUPBOARDS, ETC. (co:iti~zzled)
HE
oak cupboard [PLATE,
A],
ofEnglish workmanship, is the propertyof Mr. Alfred de Lafontaine, who pur-chased it from an old house atSalisbury. The two sculptured headsenge-shaped medallions of the upperdoors are treated
in
a manner derived from
The
"
Manaj-i-
Heiwan
"
Iranian element in the art of Central Asia.then remarked
:-
This P~rsian lement has been tinged with influences ofthe extreme East, apparently in Transrxiana, which \vnsthen Mongol
;
but from the moment
of
its appearance it isdidinct from Chinese and every other art
;
it has alreadyjust that quality which makes the charm and grandeur ofPersian art.
The miniatures of Mr. Pierpont Morgan'sBestiarium belong to the same series as the
"
Kalilaed Dimna
".
We are here in the presence of anart which is quite indigenous to central Asia andto Persia. Certain analogies to the art of ChineseTilrkestan and to the art of the Sung may nodoubt be found in it, but they are very distant.
Of
direct copying there is no evidence
;
butone may find sometimes liberal interpretations ofprocesses, there is no question of po~zcifs, uch asare found in Chinese art.
On
the whole Mr.Pierpont Morgan's Bestiariumshows a magnificentoriginality and a force in style and drawingwhich has rarely been equalled. This strength isespecially apparent in the interpretation of animallife. It is my positive opinion that two or perhapseven three miniaturists collaborated in the work.The greatest among them is the one who made thedrawings reproduced in this number of Tlze Burling-to12 hfagazi~ze. The two interlocking elephants arefor grandeur of style and for unrivalled simplicity
of
execution undoubtedly one of the finest pagesin the manuscript. As cau be judged by theCOLOUR-PLATE,t is a memorable page, and
I
donot think that any animal artists in the East haveever equalled it. To find its equal it would benecessary to search among those rare and preciousbronze plaques of animal life which are classified,for lack of a better title, under the hexding
of
Scythian Art
".
'I'he other drawings which wereproduce here are certainly by the same handand of the same quality.I would draw especialattention to the curious drawing of the rocksbehind the two small running ibexes [PLATE 111,which is directly related to the Chinese treatmentof mountains in the Sung period. In a sub-sequent article in
Tlze
B~trlirzgton Afagazirzereproductions will be published of sorne of theminiatures from the same manuscript which wereprobably drawn by another artist.Fran~ois
I"
work.With the exception of thesefeatures, the rest of this example is severelysimple and exhibits no ornament but conventionalGothic foliage of a traditional type, with serratededges, but scarcely any attempt at modelling. Thetwo drawers in the middle, as in the case of themore elaborate cupboard illustrated
in
TheBt~rliizgtottMagazine for April, should be noted,
 
as a further instance of an interesting transitionalstage between a cupboard and a chest of drawers.The ends of this specimen are plain. The bodyof the cupboard is qft. 3fin. wide by rft. 8i11. deep,and the total height including the top is
4
ft. 7f in.The style is that of the period
circa
1510
to 1530.The box or coffer
[PLATE,
B]
with iron fittingsis of walnut wood and of Spanish execution,though the pierced patterns are derived fromGerman work of the period, between about 1500and 1530. The square lock-plate with a discprojecting diagonally at each angle is speciallycharacteristic. In this case the original lock-platehas disappeared
;
and its angle discs (about 34inches in diameter) have been retained but replacedwithout much regard to their correct position
;
forthe main stem should, of course, spring in adiagonal direction from the centre, whereas theydo not so spring at the present time. The three
THE
CATALOGUE
THEMUSSULMAN
ART*
BY
SIR
MARTIN
CONWAY
HE
hlunich Exhibition of MussulmanArt held in 1910 will long remainfamous in the history of Orientalstudy. It deserved to have its memoryenshrined in a well-illustrated cata-logue. The three portly volumes now underconsideration monumentally effect that memorial.They contain 257 plates, whereof 234 carry collo-type photographs and twenty-three colouredreproductions of the principal objects includedin the exhibition. As that was very fully noticedhere when it was open, and the notices were accom-panied with numerous photographic reproductions,made for the most part from thesame negatives nowreprinted, with many others, on a larger scale, itwould be but to repeat those observations if thesame ground were traversed once more. Thepresent notice, therefore, must confine itself to theactual published work, without direct reference tothe collection which that work is intended toillustrate. I may sly at once, however, thathere are brought together and excellently pub-lished a great number of the most importantsurviving works of art of many kinds producedby the hloslem schools of what may broadly becalled the Rliddle Ages. There exists no othersuch comprehensive collection of reproductions,none the scope of which is so wide and the qualityof the reproductions so sufficing. As the selectionhas been made by the experts chiefly concernedin bringing the loan-collection together, we may
*
Dze
Atrotellrrng
van
Meisterzucr-kcrr Mrrlmmnteriarrischev
Kfrtist
trz
Miiriclzerr. F. S
trre
und
F.
R.
Martin.
Three
vols.
fol.
Munich
:
F.
Bruckmann.
£18
15,.
plain discs and the hasps, again, are of late work
;
but the handsome drop-handles, with their pierceddiscs, along the lower part of the front aregenuine and untouched. The ends are fitted withdrop-handles of a variant design from, bul no lessadmirable than, the front ones. The discs of theseend handles are
3
inches in diameter. It only re-mains to draw attention to the 11on-maskssculptured on the front ends of the flanges, beneaththe lid
;
and to the elaborate dovetailing by whichthe body of the box is joined together. Theinterior is fitted with drawers and other receptacleswhich encroach considerably upon the area of thewell in the middle.The size is 3 ft.
0
in. long by~ft.in. deep by
I
ft. 7in. high over all
;
the bodyof the box being
2
ft.
IO~
n. long by
I
ft.
62
in, decp.(Thanks are due to Mr. de Lafontaine and toMessrs. Hubert Gould, Lucas
and
Co. for allow-ing their property to be reproduced.)
MUNICHEXHIBITION
assume that it is as characteristic and reprcsenta-tive as circumstances allowed.The arrangement is according to class, andeach group is preceded by a concise introduction,while each individual object is scientificallydescribed on a fly-leaf facing its illustration.Miniatures and binding (forty-one plates) havebeen attended to by Dr.
F.
R.
Martin, carpets(forty-seven plates) by Dr.
F.
Sarre, who likewisedescribes the ceramics (thirty-three plates). Worksin metal, glass, crystal, carved wood and ivory (inall sixty-seven plates) have fallen into the com-petent hands of Dr. Ernst Kuhnel
;
Dr.
M.
Dregerdeals with the woven stuffs (forty-eight plates),and Dr. C. List with the weapons (twenty-oneplates). Whilst the descriptions follow a definitepattern throughout, the introductions vary incharacter. Some of them merely attempt toname the chief collections represented and toindicate the importance of the exhibits
;
others arevaluable brief
re'su~nts
of the present state ofknowledge on the subject dealt with. Thus in acouple of pages Dr. Martin gives a masterly sketchof the history of bookbinding and MS. productionin the lands of Islam. Dr. Dreger's introductionto the
"
Stuffs
"
is a longer and very useiul
rLsz~nzt
of the whole subject as to which
I
have readnothing at once so good and so cor~cise. Dr.Kuhnel's contributions are likewise most valuable.Perhaps, however, the most important part ofthe text is the chapter by Dr. hlax van Berchem,dealing with the historical inscriptions on objectsin the exhibition. Such inscribed dated objectsare the pivots on which turns the whole history

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