pare, and contrast the uses and impacts of PAC inother developing countries.
To study PAC services in Colombia and under-stand their perceived beneªts from the perspectiveof the users, we conducted ªeldwork using bothqualitative and quantitative methods in libraries,telecenters, and cybercafés in different towns andcities of the country during the ªrst half of 2010.The intent was to better understand barriers, oppor-tunities, and impacts of PAC for the social and eco-nomic development of Colombia’s underservedcommunities. These ªndings represent user experi-ences and perceptions in different kinds of PAC ven-ues around the country. The ªndings also offerinsight into the kinds of beneªts (and negative con-sequences) that users perceive to be most signiªcantto them. Through a better understanding of thePAC services and the way users perceive the beneªtsthey derive from them, these ªndings can informPAC policy and program implementation in order tocontribute more effectively to social and economicdevelopment of underserved communities, both inColombia and in other developing countries aroundthe world.
A dozen years ago, there were only a few PACexperiences around the world, mostly limited to asmall number of international donor-funded “multi-purpose community telecenters (MCT),” notably inUganda and Mali; a few “civic telecenters” precari-ously operating in schools and libraries in differentcountries; a few “basic telecenters” set up by localnongovernmental organizations (NGOs); a couple of“telecenter franchises,” centrally coordinated butlocally owned telecenters, as in South Africa andPeru; and a handful of cybercafés in wealthy neigh-borhoods and shopping malls of many capital citiesand tourist towns. In only 12 years, these few, earlyPAC experiences have multiplied and spread aroundthe developing world, sponsored by developmentagencies, governments, and nonproªt organizations.Privately owned cybercafés, run as for-proªt busi-nesses, have grown even faster.The global interest in telecenters by developmentagencies and scholars grew dramatically with theturn of the century: Numerous articles related totelecenters for development appeared in peer-reviewed journals, institutional reports, and otherpublications early in the decade (some of the mostoften cited such articles include Benjamin, 2001;Etta & Parvyn-Wamahiu, 2003; Gomez & Hunt,1999; Proenza, Bastidas-Buch, & Montero, 2002;Roman, 2003). Special issues focused on telecentersor public access computing were published by sev-eral journals relevant to the ªeld of ICT for develop-ment: The
Journal of Development Communication
(2), 2001) and the
Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries
2001) offered early analyses oftelecenters. For the most part, they focused on whytelecenters were not working and how to improvethem. Five years later, the
Journal of Community Informatics
(3), 2006) dedicated an entireissue to telecenters. In 2006, the majority of thestudies were still trying to ªgure out how to maketelecenters work better, given limited infrastructure,awareness, services, and use. Two Colombian casestudies (Amariles, Paz, Russell, & Johnson, 2006;Parkinson & Ramirez, 2006) found limited evidenceof telecenter use. Even though there is importantresearch about public access computing in librariesin the United States (Bertot, McClure, Thomas,Barton, & McGilvray, 2007; Gibson, Bertot, &McClure, 2009), including a recent and ambitiousstudy that assesses (for the ªrst time) the socialbeneªts of public access computing in the UnitedStates (Becker et al., 2010), there are relatively fewstudies of PAC in public libraries in developing coun-tries (Gould & Gomez, 2010; Walkinshaw, 2007).Cybercafés have also been relatively understudied asa social phenomenon, with some noteworthy excep-tions that have explored their potential contributionto community development (Finquelievich & Prince,2007; Gomez, Pather, & Dosono, 2012; Gurol &Sevindik, 2007; Haseloff, 2005; Salvador, Sherry, &Urrutia, 2005).A recent and exhaustive literature review on ICTimpact suggests the following:There is limited conclusive evidence on down-stream impacts of public access to ICTs. The evi-dence that does exist suggests that the publicaccess ICT model is not living up to the expecta-tions placed on it. This is not necessarily because
Volume 8, Number 3, Fall 2012
5. For a more detailed comparison of PAC in Colombia versus the other countries included in the Landscape Study, seeGomez (2009), in particular, pages 32–34, which focus on Colombia.