Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Water Industries

Water Industries

Ratings: (0)|Views: 44 |Likes:
Published by bernolim

More info:

Published by: bernolim on Sep 21, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/11/2012

pdf

text

original

 
CEBU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 
UNIVERSITY CEBU, CITY 
CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES(CHE 411)
 
WATER INDUSTRIES
Written Report 
Submitted by:
Echavia, Vernadette Olympiad T.Caritan, Jessel Therese C.Soria, Megan M.
(BSCHE-III)
 
Submitted to:
Engr. Concordia Bacalso
instructor 
INDUSTRIAL USES OF WATER
•Reaction medium•Heating•Cleaning /washing•Cooling•Power generation
WATER AND ITS IMPURITIES
In the evaluation of water quality, the impurities in water are usually classified as:
•Physical –
color, silt, clay
•Chemical –
Cl- Fe2+ Ca2+ Mg2+ CO32-
•Biological –
bacteria, viruses, algae
TYPES OF WATER HARDNESS
TEMPORARY
 
Or carbonate hardness
 
Due to the presence of bicarbonates Ca and Mg which can be removed by heatingPERMANENT
 
or noncarbonate hardness
 
Due to the sulfates and chlorides of Ca and Mg which can be removed by the use of chemicalagents
 
PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN THE INDUSTRY DUE TO HARDNESS OF WATER
SCALE FORMATION due to presence of dissolved salts which results to:1)
 
Clogging up of pipelines2)
 
Reduction in the capacity of equipment3)
 
Hindrance to the flow of heat (low heat transfer increases fuel consumption)4)
 
High maintenance and repair costs
 
 CORROSION
 –
dissolving away metals due to the acid (HCO
3
) present in water causing:1)
 
High maintenance and repair costs2)
 
Break down of equipmentFOAM FORMTION
 –
presence of suspended particles, scales and tiny bubbles which:1)
 
Lowers steam quality2)
 
Causes explosion
WAYS TO MINIMIZE THE PROBLEMS ON WATER HARDNESS
 
Pre-treatment
 –
removal of salts present in water
 
Descaling
 –
removal of scales on the equipment
 
Use solvents to dissolve scales, e.g., HCl
 
Neutralization
 
Application of protective coatings on the equipment (excluding Pb paints when water is used asdrinking water)
 
Introduce anti-foaming device like agitators
WATER CONDITIONING AND TREATMENT
 
Terms used for rendering water fit for industrial use and consumption by some physical andchemical treatment
 
Any procedure or method used to alter the chemical composition or natural “behavior” of a
water supply
METHODS OF WATER CONDITIONING AND TREATMENT
 
WATER SOFTENING
 –
process of reducing or eliminating the hardness of water
 
WATER CLARIFICATION
 –
removal of suspended matter present in water
 
WATER PURIFICATION
 –
removal of pathogenic (disease causing) microorganisms from water
GENERAL METHODS OF WATER SOFTENING
 
PRECIPITATION
 –
use of chemical agents to precipitate salts that cause hardness
 
ION-EXCHANGE
 –
use of resins to exchange ions in water; can give zero hardness

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->