Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Process FMEA

Process FMEA

Ratings: (0)|Views: 131|Likes:
Published by Devspring

More info:

Published by: Devspring on Sep 21, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





The reduction of irregularities inthe use of “process FMEA”
Carla Estorilio
 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Technological University in Parana´ (UTFPR), Curitiba, Brazil, and 
Richard K. Posso
 Renault do Brasil SA, Sa˜ o Jose´ dos Pinhais, Brazil 
– Use of failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is a requirement of ISO/TS 16949.However, research has shown that there are inconsistencies in the way the technique is applied inautomotive suppliers. The aim of this study is to identify these irregularities and to propose a strategyto minimize them.
– Questionnaires were applied in seven of the main suppliers to aEuropean automotive company, and ten FMEAs from each company were analyzed.
– The study identifies irregularities in the development of process FMEAs and highlightsseven factors that contribute to these inconsistencies. Based on these data, a strategy including apartially preconfigured FMEA form is suggested. When tested with three of the suppliers, the strategywas found to result in a significant improvement.
– The study describes an application strategy for automotive companies tocorrect problems associated with the use of FMEAs. The strategy includes a partly parameterizedspreadsheet for a cold stamping process that allows companies to implement their process FMEA in acollaborative supply chain environment.
Failure modes and effects analysis, Reliability management, Automotive industry, Brazil
Paper type
Case study
1. Introduction
According to Biasoli (2003), the failure of a product in the warranty period not onlyimplies costs for the company, but also compromises the company’s credibility. Onetechnique for improving reliability is failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), whichallows preventive analysis of failures that may compromise reliability (Stamatis, 2003;Palady, 1997; Puente
et al.
, 2002). Dale and Shaw (1990) state that the main reason forhaving an FMEA procedure in most companies is that it is a mandatory requirement of their customers.Many organizations use FMEA, especially automotive companies, as it is a QS-9000quality system requirement (Instituto de Qualidade Automotiva, 2002). ISO/TS 16949(World Automotive Standard), which is equivalent to QS-9000, is a standard thatdefines quality requirements for suppliers.However, a number of questions have been raised about FMEA. According toTumer
et al.
(2003), it is laborious, requires a considerable amount of time, and isexpensive. In addition, the results obtained using the technique are unsatisfactorybecause of inconsistencies in the descriptions of the functions and failures of the objectbeing analyzed.
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
The reduction of irregularities
Received March 2009Revised June 2009Accepted June 2009
International Journal of Quality &Reliability ManagementVol. 27 No. 6, 2010pp. 721-733
Emerald Group Publishing Limited0265-671XDOI 10.1108/02656711011054579
Teng and Ho (1996) concluded in their research that if too much time, manpowerand effort are spent just on the development of an FMEA report, then theimplementation of FMEA is highly questionable.Aguiar and Salomon (2007) found irregularities in some of the FMEAs theyanalyzed and suggested that this occurs because first-level suppliers delegate part of their production to smaller companies, which do not comply with quality requirements.According to Kaufman and Sato (2004), some organizations do not take advantageof the benefits of FMEA. Surveying more than 100, the authors concluded that most of them use this methodology to comply with quality requirements.According to Teng
et al.
(2006), companies need to establish a collaborative supplychain environment to enhance their manufacturing and business performance. The useof FMEA as a platform is of great benefit to these companies in their endeavors toincrease profits.Teng and Ho (1996) suggested that the input from supplier(s) and customer(s) beincluded in the development of the design FMEA and proposed that design andprocess FMEAs be linked through a number of steps to ensure that FMEA is usedappropriately in a supply chain.Teng
et al.
(2006), aiming to further enhance the collaborative supply chainenvironment for FMEA applications, developed a tool to determine the sample size andreliability for attribute tests, such as a go/no go test. After practical tests were carriedout, there was found to be a gap between actual practices and the required knowledgefor the process FMEA to be successfully implemented in a collaborative environment.Hence, they suggested that further research be carried out into the development of a“more comprehensive toolfor all types of testing and the design of an “FMEAplatform for all supply chain operations”.In light of both this suggestion and the regulatory requirements, this study analyzesthe process FMEA used in an automotive company and seven of its suppliers with aview to identifying irregularities during its completion and developing a strategy toreduce these discrepancies.The study investigates the factors that give rise to disparities in FMEAs and theinformation needed to conduct them. The authors also describe an application strategythat includes a partly parameterized spreadsheet for a cold stamping process that wastested at three suppliers.
2. Research methodology
The approach adopted in this study included a review of the literature, as it wasdeemed important to understand the concepts and methods involved (Gil, 2002).Because the aim of the study was to identify irregularities in the way that FMEAswere filled out, a case study involving an automotive manufacturer and its supplierswas carried out. The study is, in fact, an empirical investigation of a contemporaryphenomenon in a real environment, and the demarcation between the phenomenonitself and the context in which it occurs is not clearly defined. The stages for a casestudy suggested by Yin (2008) were followed and are described below:(1) Choice of a theoretical basis (filling out of the FMEA spreadsheet).(2) Selection of the case (automotive company and seven main suppliers).
(3) Preparation of data selection (factors that have an impact on the way the FMEAis filled out).(4) Execution of the study:
Review of the literature related to, amongst other things, reliability, quality,the cold stamping production process and the commonest defects associatedwith this process.
Collection ofdatafrom the seven suppliers selectedfor the study by means of a semi structured questionnaire (Gil, 2002) with questions related to thecompany and the way in which the FMEAs are filled out. The sevensuppliers chosen were selected because they supply the bulk of the parts tothe manufacturer – 327 out of a total of 357 parts – and are therefore themost representative suppliers.
Collection of data from each supplier: ten process FMEAS that had beencompleted in the previous 24 months were collected from each supplier.(5) Reparation of the report (diagnosis).(6) Suggestions for improvements.
Proposed changes – carried out in stages: critical analysis of each parameteridentified; diagnosis of the possible causes of the parameters that exert aninfluence; and suggestions for improvements to both the methodology andthe spreadsheet to minimize any discrepancies when preparing and usingthe FMEA.
Validating the proposed changes – application of the FMEA at three of theseven suppliers. The FMEA incorporates the proposed changes, whichinclude a partially parameterized spreadsheet suggested by the authors totake into account the study diagnosis. All three suppliers are different sizes(small, medium-sized and large) and were chosen to determine whether thevariable “company size” had any impact. To draw up the spreadsheet astamped part that met the following criteria was chosen: it should involve nomore than three stamping operations; it should be of average geometriccomplexity; and the suppliers involved must be starting to produce the partand make it commercially available in Brazil. Once the spreadsheets hadbeen collected,they were compared and analyzed inthe same way as the firstspreadsheets that were collected. The results obtained with the standardFMEA spreadsheet were then compared with those obtained using thepartially parameterized spreadsheet after some of the suggestions to ensurethat the FMEA was developed more effectively had been implemented.
3. Quality, reliability and failure
Quality is the basis upon which products are judged by users. The focus of qualityassurance is to assure compliance of the product with what has been specified.Compliance is measured by the variation of product characteristics around specifiedvalues (Xenos, 1998; Shirose, 1995). Slack
et al.
(2007) define “reliabilityas thecapability of a system to perform as expected during a certain time interval.In spite of the importance attached to reliability, the possibility of unforeseen eventsoccurring always exists, although not all such events may be critical. Hence, it is
The reduction of irregularities

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->