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The Origin of an Indian Dietary Rule Evidence for a Lost Manava Work on Dharma. (J.bronkhorst)(Aligarh Journal of Oriental Studies, I.1, 1984)

The Origin of an Indian Dietary Rule Evidence for a Lost Manava Work on Dharma. (J.bronkhorst)(Aligarh Journal of Oriental Studies, I.1, 1984)

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Âligarh JournalofOriental Studies
VOL.I SPRING 1984 No. 1
Editor
U. C. SHARMA
Associate
Editors
S. R. SARMA G. C. SHARMA
V1VEKA PUBLICATIONSALIGARH
 
JOHANNES BRONKHORST
THE ORTGIN OF AN INDTAN DIETARY RULEEVIDENCE FOR A LOST MAN
A VA
WORK ON D
H
ARM
A
Patanjali's
Vyäkarana-Mahäbhäsya
contains in its first
(Paspasa)Ähnika
the following illustration (1.5.14-1-6):'«By restricting tilings that are to be eaten a prohibition of what is not tobe eaten is understood. In the statement
(
ftve
rive-naile.d [animals] areto be eaten,' it is understood that [animals] different from these are notto be eaten."'The phrase
panca
pancanakhä bhaksyäh
looks like a quotation,and indeed it is found in at least three early works. The
Räniäyana
4.17.34 reads:9Piï: fThe
Mahâbhïïraîa
12.139.66 has:Finally, the Buddhist
Mahäsutasomajätaka
(537) contains the following
(no.
58/425):None of the surviving Dharma Sütras contains the phrase
porica
panca-
nakhâ bhaksyah,
as far as I am aware. Nevertheless it seems unlikelythat Patafijali's
Mahâbhâçya
quoted this phrase from any of the threesources listed above. One is tempted. to suspect that both Patanjaliand these other three works drew upon an early work on Dharma whichhas not survived. This agrees with the fact that all these works unmi-stakably refer to a known and pre-existing rule rather than prescribing
$;.new
one. MBit
12.139.66 goes to the extent of referring to a
§âstra
thatis to be taken as authoritative.
 
124
Johannes
Bronkhorst
This suspicion is strengthened by Bhartrhari's remarks in hiscommentary on the
Mahnbhäsya,
edited by the Bhandarkar OrientalResearch Institute under the name
Mahäbhäsyadipikä.
Bhartrhan states(Ms 5dN2; Sw 19.24; AL 15.19-20) :"In the section on what should and what should not be eaten it is heardthat 'five five-nailed [animals] are to be eaten'."So Bhartrhari appears to have known the phrase
paftca paftcariakhabhaksyäh
as part of a work that contained a section
(prakarana)
onwhat should not be eaten, i.e., most probably a work on Dharma. Thiswork apparently listed the five five-nailed animals concerned, forBhartrhari refers to them a few lines later as 'the porcupine etc'
(êalya-
kädi;
Ms 5d4; Sw 19.28; AL 15.23). This information is not containedin the
Mahnbhäsya.
What possibly could the work that Bhartrhari refers to in thispeculiar manner have been ? Bhartrhari merely mentions the section
(prakarana)
without bothering to name the work
itself.
In order toanswer this question we may first recall that Bhartrhari appears tohave been a Maitayaruya. Rau (1980)
1
has shown that most of hisVedic quotations can be traced to the
Maltrnyctnï
Samhitâ, navaSrauta Sütra
arid
Mänava Grhya Sütra.
It seems likely that here tooBhartrhari refers to a text belonging to this school.This impression is strengthened and further specified by the factthat Bhartrhari refers on two other occasions to a 'section'
(prakarana)
of an unnamed work; both times the reference can be traced in the
Mäiava Srauta Sütra.
Both of these references are to 'the section onmodification'
(ßhaprakaranä).
Once Bhartrhan states (Ms 2dl(Ml;Sw 8.11-12; AL 7.5-6J:This corresponds to
MSS
5.2.9.6:The second time his commentary reads (Ms 3a8-9; Sw 9.3-4; AL7.20-21):1.See also Bronkhorst, 1981, and "Further remarks on Bhartrhari's Vedic Affilia-tion," to appear soon.

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