Step up or step-down transformation of dc voltages is not possible in equipment liketransformer.
(B) Advantages of AC Transmission:
Power can be generated at high voltages as there is no commutation problem.
Ac voltages can be conveniently stepped up or stepped down.
High voltage transmission of ac power reduces losses.
Disadvantages of AC transmission:
Problems of inductances and capacitances exist in transmission lines
Due to skin effect, more copper is required.
Construction of AC transmission lines is more complicated as well as costly
Effective resistance of ac transmission lines is increased due to skin effect.
Long distance power transmission:
Power transmission over long distances using alternating current is complicated by theinductance and capacitance of the line. For satisfactory operation of such lines it is necessary tobalance the lagging inductive volt amperes of the line ( I
ωL) against the leading capacitance
volt amperes ( V
ω C ). Equating the two we get V/I the impedance of the load. √L/C which is
also known as characteristic impedance of the line, Z
. The corresponding load is thus V
watts per phase or (kV)
/Z, M W for three phase line where kV is the line voltage in kilo volts.This load is termed as "natural load " on the transmission line. Long distance high power highvoltage transmission lines are designed for rated load equal to its natural load.
Voltage kV 132
Natural load, MW 50
Current (A) 220
A material for conducting electric power should have the following properties :
High electrical conductivity.
Low specific gravity.
High tensile strength.