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Mcq

Mcq

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Published by bhuvana_eee

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Published by: bhuvana_eee on Sep 22, 2012
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05/13/2014

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Transmission and Distribution
Introduction of Transmission and Distribution:
For economical generation of power large generating stations are used. Capacities of individualgenerating sets have gone up recently. Generating sets in the range of 10 MW, 210 MW and 500MW are being manufactured in many countries. Generating station are now not necessarilylocated at load centers. In fact other factors like availability of fuel and water play moredominating role in the selection of sites for thermal stations. Hydro stations are obviously locatedonly at the sites where water is available at sufficient head. A vast network of transmissionsystem has been created so that power generated at one station may be fed to grid system andmay be distributed over large areas and number of states. The transmission and distributionsystem comprises a network of three-phase circuits with transforming and or switchingsubstations at the various junctions. The parts of a transmission and distribution network maybegrouped as given below.
TRANSMISSION:
Several generating stations can be inter connected. The main advantages are :
(i)
reduction in the number of spare plants required as one station can assist the other at the timeof emergency.
(ii)
during light loads one station or some generators can be shut off, thus affecting operationaleconomy.
Primary transmission:
High voltages of the order of 66 kV 132 kV 220 kV and 400 kV are used for transmitting powerby 3 phase 3 wire overhead system. This is supplied to substations usually at the out skirts of major distribution center or city.
Secondary transmission:
The primary voltage is reduced to low values of the order of 3.3 kV, 11 kV or 33 kV forsecondary transmission.
Primary distribution:
The transmission lines or inner connectors terminate at large main substations from which thepower is distributed to small secondary substations scattered throughout the load area. Thevoltage may range from 11 kV to 132 kV.
 
Secondary distribution:
This consists of the low-voltage network laid along the streets, localities and over the rural areas.From these sources connections to individual customers are provided. The circuit used for thispurpose is 3 phase 4 wire, 440 V/220 V from which either 3 phase 440 V or single phase 220 Vsupply to the consumers may be provided.
System layout:
From the power stations PS, emanate 3 phase feeder supplying secondary distributionssubstations located at points throughout the supply area. The normal voltages are 132 kV, 33 kVand 11 kV.
COMPARISON OF AC AND DC TRANSMISSION:(A) Advantages of DC transmission:
1.
It requires only two conductors.
2.
There is no problem of inductance, capacitance and phase displacement which is common inac transmission.
3.
For the same load and sending end voltage, the voltage drop in dc transmission lines is lessthan that in ac transmission.
4.
As there is no skin effect on conductors, therefore entire cross-section of conductor is usefullyutilized thereby affecting saving in material.
5.
For the same value of voltage insulating materials on dc lines experience less stress ascompared to those on ac transmission lines.
6.
A dc line has less corona loss and reduced interference with communication circuits.
7.
There is no problem of system instability so common in ac transmission.
Disadvantages of DC transmission:
1.
Generation of power at high dc voltages is difficult due to commutation problems and cannotbe usefully utilized at Consumer ends.
 
2.
Step up or step-down transformation of dc voltages is not possible in equipment liketransformer.
(B) Advantages of AC Transmission:
1.
Power can be generated at high voltages as there is no commutation problem.
2.
Ac voltages can be conveniently stepped up or stepped down.
3.
High voltage transmission of ac power reduces losses.
Disadvantages of AC transmission:
1.
Problems of inductances and capacitances exist in transmission lines
2.
Due to skin effect, more copper is required.
3.
Construction of AC transmission lines is more complicated as well as costly
4.
Effective resistance of ac transmission lines is increased due to skin effect.
Long distance power transmission:
Power transmission over long distances using alternating current is complicated by theinductance and capacitance of the line. For satisfactory operation of such lines it is necessary tobalance the lagging inductive volt amperes of the line ( I
2
 
ωL) against the leading capacitance
volt amperes ( V
2
ω C ). Equating the two we get V/I the impedance of the load. √L/C which is
also known as characteristic impedance of the line, Z
0
. The corresponding load is thus V
2
 /Z
0
 watts per phase or (kV)
2
 /Z, M W for three phase line where kV is the line voltage in kilo volts.This load is termed as "natural load " on the transmission line. Long distance high power highvoltage transmission lines are designed for rated load equal to its natural load.
Natural Loads:
Voltage kV 132
 
220
 
400
 
Z
0
 
(Ω)
350
 
320
 
290
 
Natural load, MW 50
 
150
 
500
 
Current (A) 220
 
385
 
752
 
CONDUCTOR MATERIALS:
A material for conducting electric power should have the following properties :
1.
High electrical conductivity.
2.
Low cost.
3.
Low specific gravity.
4.
High tensile strength.

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