Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Ice Sensors for WT

Ice Sensors for WT

Ratings: (0)|Views: 151 |Likes:
Ice sensors for wind turbines
Ice sensors for wind turbines

More info:

Published by: Caritina De La Mancha on Sep 24, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

09/24/2012

pdf

text

original

 
Ice sensors for wind turbines
Matthew C. Homola
, Per J. Nicklasson, Per A. Sundsbø
 Narvik University College, Box 385, 8505 Narvik, Norway
Received 30 December 2005; accepted 22 June 2006
Abstract
A review of ice sensor technology and the challenges for icing detection for wind turbines was performed. A total of 29different methods for detection of icing were found, and these were then compared with a list of some basic requirements for anicing sensor for wind turbine applications. No reports of ice sensors performing satisfactorily were found, but the sensing methodsusing infrared spectroscopy through fiber optic cables, a flexible resonating diaphragm, ultrasound from inside the blade or acapacitance, inductance or impedance based sensor seem best suited for wind turbine icing detection.© 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 Keywords:
Ice; Icing; Ice accretion; Glaze; Rime; Atmospheric ice; Wind turbine
1. Introduction
Often the best locations for wind turbines are inexposed locations where they are subject to icing of the blades. Icing of wind turbine blades can cause a varietyof problems, such as; complete loss of production(Ronsten, 2004), reduction of power due to disruptedaerodynamics (Jasinski et al., 1998), overloading due todelayed stall (Jasinski et al., 1998), increased fatigue of components due to imbalance in the ice load (Ganander and Ronsten, 2003), and damage or harm caused byuncontrolled shedding of large ice chunks (Seifert,2003). Methods of deicing the blades have been shownto work effectively, but the ice sensors used in thecontrol systems have not reliably detected the onset of icing. The objectives of this paper were to researchmethods of ice detection and propose a sensor thaovercomes the shortcomings of previously tested icingsensors.
2. The icing problem
As mentioned in the introduction, icing causes avariety of problems for wind turbines. In the case of extreme icing it may not be possible to start the turbine,due to changed aerodynamics of the blades, withsubsequent loss of all possible production for quitelong periods of time. One example of this is described byRonsten (2004), where a turbine in southern Swedenwas stopped for over 7 weeks during the best operating period because of icing. In addition, the buildup of iceon the blades of the turbine disturbs the aerodynamics,which can either reduce the amount of power producedor overload the turbine if it is stall regulated (Jasinskiet al., 1998). The increased fatigue loads on all com- ponents of a wind turbine operating with an unbalancedice load on the blades has been presented as a problem
Cold Regions Science and Technology 46 (2006) 125
131www.elsevier.com/locate/coldregions
Corresponding author. Fax: +47 76 96 68 10.
 E-mail addresses:
matthew.homola@hin.no(M.C. Homola), per.johan.nicklasson@hin.no(P.J. Nicklasson), per.arne.sundsbo@hin.no(P.A. Sundsbø).0165-232X/$ - see front matter © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2006.06.005
 
(Ganander and Ronsten, 2003) where the effects aredifficult to predict due to general lack of knowledgeregarding the intensity and duration of icing events. Thelast problem from icing does not concern the windturbine itself, but is the risk posed by uncontrolledshedding of ice chunks. These are of special danger toservice personnel, but may also affect public acceptancetowards wind power if the danger requires fencing off large areas around the wind turbines.Measures to prevent icing have been used, and have been shown to work effectively (Peltola et al., 2003; LMGlasfiber, 2004; Kimura et al., 2004; Horbaty, 2005). Inaddition,Botura and Fisher (2003)andBattisti (2004, 2005)have presented new methods for deicing. With allof the methods that do not operate continuously it has pointed out the need for a reliable icing detector toactivate the deicing system. Various sensors have beentested, but have not performed satisfactorily. Tounderstand why this occurred, the mechanisms of icing were studied.
3. Causes of icing
Two main types of atmospheric ice accumulation aretraditionally defined, in-cloud icing and precipitationicing (ISO 12494, 2001).The main icing mechanisms of interest for windturbine applications are as follows:1) In-cloud icinga) Rimei) Hard rimeii) Soft rime b) Glaze
1
2) Precipitation icinga) Wet snow b) Freezing rainIn-cloud icing occurs when small, supercooled,airborne water droplets, which make up clouds andfog, freeze upon impacting a surface which allowsformation of ice. These water droplets can remain liquidin the air at temperatures down to
35 °C (Mason, 1971, p.155) due to their small size, but will freeze uponstriking a surface which provides a crystallization site.The different types of rime and glaze are formeddepending on the droplet sizes and the energy balance of the surface in question. For small droplets with almost instantaneous freezing, soft rime forms. With mediumsized droplets and slightly slower freezing, hard rimeforms. If the buildup of rime is such that a layer of liquidwater is present on the surface during freezing, glazeforms.Precipitation icing is due to rain or snow freezing oncontact with a surface. Precipitation icing can havemuch higher rates of mass accumulation than in-cloudicing, with possibly greater resulting damage. Relativefrequency for the two types of icing is dependent ongeographic location and climate. Wet snow can stick tosurfaces when in the temperature range of 0
3 °C, whilefreezing rain requires surface temperatures below 0 °C.A physical model for icing is described by Eq. (3.1),as detailed byMakkonen (1994 p.53)and inISO 12494 (2001).d
 M 
d
¼
a
1
a
2
a
3
w
 A
ð
3
:
1
Þ
Where
A
is the cross sectional area of the object withrespect to the direction of the particle velocity vector,
w
is the mass concentration of the particles,
is therelative velocity of the particles and the
α
terms arecorrection factors with values in the range 0.0
1.0.The collection efficiency (or collision efficiency),
α
1
,represents the flux density of particles striking thesurface in relation to the maximum possible. Thesticking efficiency,
α
2
, represents the ratio of the fluxdensity of particles sticking to the surface to the fluxdensity of the particles striking the surface. Theaccretion efficiency,
α
3
, represents the rate at whichice builds up on the surface in relation to the flux densityof particles sticking to the surface.
4. Methods of detection
Icing can be detected either directly or indirectly. Thedirect methods detect some property change caused bythe accretion of ice. These include mass, reflective properties, electrical or thermal conductivity, dielectriccoefficient and inductance. The indirect methods are based upon detecting the weather conditions that lead toicing, such as humidity and temperature, or detecting theeffects of icing, such as a reduction in power production.They then use a model, either empirical or deterministic,to determine when icing is occurring. The methodsfound for detection of ice are listed here. Though thesensor types have many references associated withthem, the references listed for each type here are not meant to be exhaustive but focus on those that describethe measurement principles. In addition, the trade name
1
It should be noted that in North America glaze is generallyconsidered to result from freezing rain. Here the definition of glazefrom ISO 12494 is used.126
M.C. Homola et al. / Cold Regions Science and Technology 46 (2006) 125
 – 
131
 
or name of the manufacturing company is includedwhere possible.1) Direct detectiona) Damping of ultrasonic waves in a wire, Labko(Luukkala, 1995) b) Damping of ultrasonic waves on the wing surface(Chamuel, 1984; Watkins et al., 1986)c) Inductance change (Lee and Seegmiller, 1996)d) Impedance change (Wallace et al., 2002)e) Capacitance change, IDI (Geraldi et al., 1996)f) Temperature rise with heat (Maatuk, 2004)g) Temperature curves when heat is applied to smallareas (Lardiere and Wells, 1998)h) Resonant frequency of a probe
magnetostric-tion, Goodrich, formerly Rosemount (Cronin et al., 2001; Goodrich 2002a,b,c,d)i) Resonant frequency of a probe
piezoelectric,Vibro-Meter (Vibro-Meter, 2005) j) Microwave waveguide (Magenheim, 1977)k) Reflected light from inside (Fedrow and Silver-man, 1994; Noack, 1998; Kim, 1998)l) Fiber optic cable with special clad (Klainer andMilanovich, 1990)m) Flexible diaphragm (DeAnna, 1999)n) Mechanical resistance to piezoelectric expansion(Goldberg and Lardiere, 1993)o) Piezoelectric pressure sensor to detect ice andturbulence (Gerardi et al., 1993) p) Reflection of polarized infrared light, Goodrich(Goodrich, 2001e)q) Infrared spectroscopy, Infralytic (Infralytic, 2005)r) Ice blocking an exit hole is detected (Khurgin,1989; Pettler and Roberts, 1998)s) Reflective light sensor, HoloOptics (Westerlund,2004)t) Stereo imaging from web cameras (Seifert, 2003)u) Ultrasound system from inside the blade (Hans-man and Kirby, 1986)v) Surface impedance and temperature, Instrumar (Chan, 2005)w) Ice collecting cylinder, AerotechTelub (Aero-techTelub, 2005)x) Surface acoustic wave sensor (SAW) (Galipeau,2005)2) Indirect detectiona) Dew point and temperature (Makkonen et al.,2005) b) Actual power output vs. predicted from windspeedc) Anemometers with and without heating (Craigand Craig, 1995)d) Frequency of generated noise (Seifert, 2003)e) Change in blade resonant frequency
5. Some basic requirements for successful detection
Detection of icing on wind turbines has different requirements than detection of icing on aircraft or for meteorological purposes. This is evident when sensorsdesigned for other purposes do not perform adequatelywhen mounted on wind turbines.The best position for the detection of icing on a windturbine is on the blade itself, and as close to the tip as possible. This for three reasons, the first reason is basedon the model for icing as described in Eq. (3.1). The rateof ice accretion is directly related to the relative velocityof the supercooled water droplets, and it is at the bladetip that the highest velocity occurs. The second reason isthat the blade tips can experience icing due to lowclouds even though the nacelle is ice-free. At Pori, inFinland, measurements showed the number of in-cloudicing periods at 84 m was six times the number of in-cloud icing periods at 62 m (Säntti et al., 2003). Thethird reason is that the outer ends of the blades sweep alarger volume and collect water or ice from the entirevolume.An icing sensor for mounting on the blade tip of awind turbine requires that several points be consideredduring the design phase. Some of the most important are, lightning protection, the difficulty in accessing thesensor in the event of failure, and the problems asso-ciated with mounting a sensor on the flexing material of the blade. Though there have been problems with at-taching wires or cable to wind turbine blades, it is nowcommon for blades to have lightning protection cablesand collectors integrated and an additional set of wiresto a sensor may be no more difficult to integrate or proneto breakage than the lightning protection. Alternativelythe sensor can be a wireless unit for retrofitting of existing wind turbines.In spite of the difficulties associated with mounting asensor on the blade, it can be assumed that as the lengthof the blades used on wind turbines increase, it will bemore and more necessary that the detection of icingtakes place on the tips of the blades themselves, and not on the nacelle both because of higher rates of accretionon the blade tips, and because the blade tips are morelikely to reach low clouds. Therefore comparison of thesensors was based on the requirement that sensing must occur on the blade.A high sensitivity sensor is required for severalreasons. The first is that deicing by heating of the bladesrequires a much higher heating power if the airflow over 
127
 M.C. Homola et al. / Cold Regions Science and Technology 46 (2006) 125
 – 
131

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->