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Leviathan

Leviathan

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Leviathan, by Thomas HobbesThe Project Gutenberg EBook of Leviathan, by Thomas Hobbes Copyright laws are changing all over the world. Be sure to check the copyright laws for your countrybefore downloading or redistributing this or any other Project Gutenberg eBook.This header should be the first thing seen when viewing this Project Gutenberg file. Please do not remove it. Do not change or edit the header without written permission.Please read the "legal small print," and other information about the eBook and Project Gutenberg at the bottom of this file. Included is important information about your specific rights and restrictions in how the file may be used. You canalso find out about how to make a donation to Project Gutenberg, and how to getinvolved.**Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts****eBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971*******These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers!*****Title: LeviathanAuthor: Thomas HobbesRelease Date: May, 2002 [EBook #3207] [Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule] [This file was first posted on July 2, 2002]Edition: 10Language: EnglishCharacter set encoding: ASCII*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK, LEVIATHAN ***Produced by:Edward White^M 3657 Winn Road^M Courtenay^M British Columbia^M Canada V9J 1N8^M^M (250) 337 2068^M ^M edwud@telus.net^MNotes on the E-Text. This E-text was prepared from the Pelican Classics editionof Leviathan, which in turn was prepared from the first edition. I have tried tofollow as closely as possible the original, and to give the flavour of the textthat Hobbes himself proof-read, but the following differences were unavoidable.Hobbes used capitals and italics very extensively, for emphasis, for proper names, for quotations, and sometimes, it seems, just because.The original has very extensive margin notes, which are used to show where he introduces the definitions of words and concepts, to give in short the subject that a paragraph or section is dealing with, and to give references to his quotations, largely but not exclusively biblical. To some degree, these margin notes seem to have been intended to serve in place of an index, the original having none.They are all in italics.He also used italics for words in other languages than English, and there are anumber of Greek words, in the Greek alphabet, in the text.To deal with these within the limits of plain vanilla ASCII, I have done the following in this E-text.I have restricted my use of full capitalization to those places where Hobbes used it, except in the chapter headings, which I have fully capitalized, where Hobbes used a mixture of full capitalization and italics.Where it is clear that the italics are to indicate the text is quoting, I have introduced quotation marks. Within quotation marks I have retained the capitalization that Hobbes used.Where italics seem to be used for emphasis, or for proper names, or just because, I have capitalized the initial letter of the words. This has the disadvantagethat they are not then distinguished from those that Hobbes capitalized in plaintext, but the extent of his italics would make the text very ugly if I was to use an underscore or slash.Where the margin notes are either to introduce the paragraph subject, or to showwhere he introduces word definitions, I have included them as headers to the paragraph, again with all words having initial capitals, and on a shortened line.
 
For margin references to quotes, I have included them in the text, in brackets immediately next to the quotation. Where Hobbes included references in the main text, I have left them as he put them, except to change his square brackets to round.For the Greek alphabet, I have simply substituted the nearest ordinary letters that I can, and I have used initial capitals for foreign language words.Neither Thomas Hobbes nor his typesetters seem to have had many inhibitions about spelling and punctuation. I have tried to reproduce both exactly, with the exception of the introduction of quotation marks.In preparing the text, I have found that it has much more meaning if I read it with sub-vocalization, or aloud, rather than trying to read silently. Hobbes' useof emphasis and his eccentric punctuation and construction seem then to work.Edward White edwud@telus.net Canada Day 20021651 LEVIATHAN by Thomas Hobbes LEVIATHAN OR THE MATTER, FORME, & POWER OF A COMMON-WEALTH ECCLESIASTICAL AND CIVILLBy Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury.Printed for Andrew Crooke, at the Green Dragon in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1651.TO MY MOST HONOR'D FRIEND Mr. FRANCIS GODOLPHIN of GODOLPHINHONOR'D SIR.Your most worthy Brother Mr SIDNEY GODOLPHIN, when he lived, was pleas'd to think my studies something, and otherwise to oblige me, as you know, with reall testimonies of his good opinion, great in themselves, and the greater for the worthinesse of his person. For there is not any vertue that disposeth a man, either tothe service of God, or to the service of his Country, to Civill Society, or private Friendship, that did not manifestly appear in his conversation, not as acquired by necessity, or affected upon occasion, but inhaerent, and shining in a generous constitution of his nature. Therefore in honour and gratitude to him, andwith devotion to your selfe, I humbly Dedicate unto you this my discourse of Common-wealth. I know not how the world will receive it, nor how it may reflect onthose that shall seem to favour it. For in a way beset with those that contendon one side for too great Liberty, and on the other side for too much Authority,'tis hard to passe between the points of both unwounded. But yet, me thinks, the endeavour to advance the Civill Power, should not be by the Civill Power condemned; nor private men, by reprehending it, declare they think that Power too great. Besides, I speak not of the men, but (in the Abstract) of the Seat of Power,(like to those simple and unpartiall creatures in the Roman Capitol, that withtheir noyse defended those within it, not because they were they, but there) offending none, I think, but those without, or such within (if there be any such) as favour them. That which perhaps may most offend, are certain Texts of Holy Scripture, alledged by me to other purpose than ordinarily they use to be by others. But I have done it with due submission, and also (in order to my Subject) necessarily; for they are the Outworks of the Enemy, from whence they impugne the Civill Power. If notwithstanding this, you find my labour generally decryed, you may be pleased to excuse your selfe, and say that I am a man that love my own opinions, and think all true I say, that I honoured your Brother, and honour you, and have presum'd on that, to assume the Title (without your knowledge) of being,as I am,Sir,Your most humble, and most obedient servant, Thomas Hobbes.Paris APRILL 15/25 1651.THE CONTENTS OF THE CHAPTERSTHE FIRST PARTOF MANINTRODUCTION1. OF SENSE2. OF IMAGINATION3. OF THE CONSEQUENCES OR TRAIN OF IMAGINATIONS
 
4. OF SPEECH5. OF REASON AND SCIENCE6. OF THE INTERIOUR BEGINNINGS OF VOLUNTARY MOTIONS, COMMONLY CALLED THE PASSIONS; AND THE SPEECHES BY WHICH THEY ARE EXPRESSED7. OF THE ENDS OR RESOLUTIONS OF DISCOURSE8. OF THE VERTUES, COMMONLY CALLED INTELLECTUALL, AND THEIR CONTRARY DEFECTS9. OF THE SEVERALL SUBJECTS OF KNOWLEDGE10. OF POWER, WORTH, DIGNITY, HONOUR, AND WORTHINESSE11.OF THE DIFFERENCE OF MANNERS12. OF RELIGION13. OF THE NATURALL CONDITION OF MANKIND AS CONCERNING THEIR FELICITY AND MISERY14. OF THE FIRST AND SECOND NATURALL LAWES, AND OF CONTRACT15. OF OTHER LAWES OF NATURE16. OF PERSONS, AUTHORS, AND THINGS PERSONATEDTHE SECOND PARTOF COMMON-WEALTH17. OF THE CAUSES, GENERATION, AND DEFINITION OF A COMMON-WEALTH18. OF THE RIGHTS OF SOVERAIGNES BY INSTITUTION19. OF SEVERALL KINDS OF COMMON-WEALTH BY INSTITUTION; AND OF SUCCESION TO THE SOVERAIGN POWER20. OF DOMINION PATERNALL, AND DESPOTICALL21. OF THE LIBERTY OF SUBJECTS22. OF SYSTEMES SUBJECT, POLITICALL, AND PRIVATE23. OF THE PUBLIQUE MINISTERS OF SOVERAIGN POWER24. OF THE NUTRITION, AND PROCREATION OF A COMMON-WEALTH25. OF COUNSELL26. OF CIVILL LAWES27. OF CRIMES, EXCUSES, AND EXTENUATIONS28. OF PUNISHMENTS, AND REWARDS29. OF THOSE THINGS THAT WEAKEN, OR TEND TO THE DISSOLUTION OF A COMMON-WEALTH30. OF THE OFFICE OF THE SOVERAIGN REPRESENTATIVE31. OF THE KINGDOM OF GOD BY NATURETHE THIRD PARTOF A CHRISTIAN COMMON-WEALTH32. OF THE PRINCIPLES OF CHRISTIAN POLITIQUES33. OF THE NUMBER, ANTIQUITY, SCOPE, AUTHORITY, AND INTERPRETERS OF THE BOOKS OFHOLY SCRIPTURE.34. OF THE SIGNIFICATION, OF SPIRIT, ANGELL, AND INSPIRATION IN THE BOOKS OF HOLY SCRIPTURE35. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF THE KINGDOME OF GOD, OF HOLY, SACRED, AND SACRAMENT36. OF THE WORD OF GOD, AND OF PROPHETS37. OF MIRACLES, AND THEIR USE38. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF ETERNALL LIFE, HEL, SALVATION, THE WORLD TO COME, AND REDEMPTION39. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF THE WORD CHURCH40. OF THE RIGHTS OF THE KINGDOME OF GOD, IN ABRAHAM, MOSES, THE HIGH PRIESTS, AND THE KINGS OF JUDAH41. OF THE OFFICE OF OUR BLESSED SAVIOUR42. OF POWER ECCLESIASTICALL43. OF WHAT IS NECESSARY FOR MANS RECEPTION INTO THE KINGDOME OF HEAVENTHE FOURTH PARTOF THE KINGDOME OF DARKNESSE44. OF SPIRITUALL DARKNESSE FROM MISINTERPRETATION OF SCRIPTURE45. OF DAEMONOLOGY, AND OTHER RELIQUES OF THE RELIGION OF THE GENTILES46. OF DARKNESSE FROM VAINE PHILOSOPHY, AND FABULOUS TRADITIONS47. OF THE BENEFIT PROCEEDING FROM SUCH DARKNESSE; AND TO WHOM IT ACCREWETH

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