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Near-Roadway Pollution and Childhood Asthma

Near-Roadway Pollution and Childhood Asthma

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ENVIRONMENTALHEALTHPERSPECTIVESENVIRONMENTALHEALTHPERSPECTIVES
National Institutes of HealthU.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Near-Roadway Pollution and Childhood Asthma:Implications for Developing “Win-Win” CompacUrban Development and Clean Vehicle Strategies
Laura Perez, Fred Lurmann, John Wilson, Manuel Pastor,Sylvia J. Brandt, Nino Künzli, Rob McConnellhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104785Online 24 September 2012
ehponline.org
ehp
 
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Near-Roadway Pollution and Childhood Asthma: Implications for Developing “Win-Win”Compact Urban Development and Clean Vehicle StrategiesLaura Perez,
1,2
Fred Lurmann,
3
John Wilson,
4
Manuel Pastor,
5
Sylvia J. Brandt,
6
Nino Künzli,
1,2
 Rob McConnell
7
Work conducted at:Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 59, 4051 Basel, SwitzerlandAffiliations:1. Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland2. University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland3. Sonoma Technology, Inc, Petaluma, California, USA4. Spatial Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA5. Program for Environmental and Regional Equity, University of Southern California, LosAngeles, USA6. Resource Economics and Center for Public Policy and Administration, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, USA7. Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USACorresponding author:Rob McConnell, MDKeck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 2001 N. Soto Street, Los Angeles90089-9237, USARunning title: Pollution-Related Childhood AsthmaKey words:Air pollution, asthma, burden of disease, children, compact urban growth, risk assessment,vehicle emissions
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AcknowledgementsSupport for this study was provided by funds from BP as part of an air quality violationssettlement agreement between the South Coast Air Quality Management District, a Californiastate regulatory agency, and BP. The study sponsor did not have a role in study design, datacollection, analysis or interpretation of data, or manuscript preparation or submission. Otherfunding support includes the National Institutes of Health grants #P30ES007048, P01ES009581,P01ES011627 and R01 ES016535; Environmental Protection Agency grants #R826708,RD831861 and R831845; and the Hastings Foundation.Competing financial interestsFred Lurmann is employed by Sonoma Technology, Inc., Petaluma, CA, an employee-ownedfor-profit scientific consulting firm which provides expert services in exposure assessment. Noneof the other authors or staff is employed by for-profit, nonprofit, foundation, or advocacy groupor have any actual or potential competing financial interests.AbbreviationsACS: American Community SurveyAQS: Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality SystemCHS: Children’s Health StudyCI: confidence intervalCO
2
: carbon dioxideCRF: concentration–response functionsER: emergency roomFCC: functional class codeFRC: functional road classificationGHG: greenhouse gas emissionsLAC: Los Angeles CountyNO
2
: nitrogen dioxideNO
x
: oxides of nitrogenO
3
: ozonePAF: population attributable fractionPM
2.5
: particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameterSB375: Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection ActVMT: vehicle miles traveledU.S.: United States
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