Child development that occurs from birth to adulthood was largely ignored throughout much of history. Children were often viewed simply as small versions of adults and little attention waspaid to the many advances in cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical growth. Interestin the field of child development finally began to emerge early in the 20th-century, but it tendedto focus on abnormal behavior.An understanding of child development is essential, allowing us to understand the cognitive,emotional, physical, social and educational growth that children go through from birth and intoearly adulthood. Some of the major theories of child development are known as grand theories;they attempt to describe every aspect of development, often using a stage approach. Others areknown as mini-theories; they instead focus only on a fairly limited aspect of development, suchas cognitive or social growth.The following are just a few of the many child development theories that have been proposed bytheorists and researchers. More recent theories outline the developmental stages of children andidentify the typical ages at which these growth milestones occur.
Psychoanalytic Child Development TheoriesSigmund Freud
The theories proposed by Sigmund Freud stressed the importance of childhood events andexperiences, but almost exclusively focused on mental disorders rather that normal functioning.According to Freud, child development is described as a series of 'psychosexual stages.' In"Three Essays on Sexuality" (1915), Freud outlined these stages as oral, anal, phallic, latencyand genital. Each stage involves the satisfaction of a libidinal desire and can later play a role inadult personality. If a child does not successfully complete a stage, Freud suggested that he orshe would develop a fixation that would later influence adult personality and behavior. Learnmore in this article on