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Published by Sohel Mahmud
Transportation System Management (TSM) is a package of short term measures to make the most productive
and cost-effective use of existing transportation facilities, services and modes. For the implementation of such
well recognized, cost-effective management tools in a city area demand assessment of the potentiality and the
fulfillment of implementation pre-requirements. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the
possibilities and inherent weakness for implementation of different transportation system management tools in
Dhaka city. The study revealed that there are only about 4 km one-way road which is only 0.31 percent of total
road network of Dhaka City Corporation (DCC). The city has not any tidal flow operational road. About 86
percent of major X-junction are 4 phases and about 90 percent of T-junction are 3 phases. Among the newly
signalized 59 intersections, 47 (80%) intersections phases are equal to its approaches. There is no coordinated
signal system in the intersection of the city. There is very little options to introduce such tools for the huge lack
of implementation requirements in the present development condition. Corresponding data has been collected
from the field observation, road inventory and landuse survey and tried to justify with the prerequisite for the
implementation of the tools. At the very outset, the prevailing transport and travel scenario and existing road
network which is foundation of the implementation of TSM has discussed.
Transportation System Management (TSM) is a package of short term measures to make the most productive
and cost-effective use of existing transportation facilities, services and modes. For the implementation of such
well recognized, cost-effective management tools in a city area demand assessment of the potentiality and the
fulfillment of implementation pre-requirements. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the
possibilities and inherent weakness for implementation of different transportation system management tools in
Dhaka city. The study revealed that there are only about 4 km one-way road which is only 0.31 percent of total
road network of Dhaka City Corporation (DCC). The city has not any tidal flow operational road. About 86
percent of major X-junction are 4 phases and about 90 percent of T-junction are 3 phases. Among the newly
signalized 59 intersections, 47 (80%) intersections phases are equal to its approaches. There is no coordinated
signal system in the intersection of the city. There is very little options to introduce such tools for the huge lack
of implementation requirements in the present development condition. Corresponding data has been collected
from the field observation, road inventory and landuse survey and tried to justify with the prerequisite for the
implementation of the tools. At the very outset, the prevailing transport and travel scenario and existing road
network which is foundation of the implementation of TSM has discussed.

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Published by: Sohel Mahmud on Sep 25, 2012
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 Proceedings of the 1
 st 
 InternationalConference on Civil Engineering for Sustainable Development (ICCESD-2012), 23~24March 2012, KUET, Khulna, Bangladesh(ISBN: 978-984-33-4247-8)
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM MANAGEMENT: ANASSESSMENT FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF GENERAL TOOLS IN DHAKACITY
S. M. Sohel Mahmud
1*
and Md. Shamsul Hoque
21
 Assistant Professor,Accident Research Institute (ARI), Bangladesh University of Engineering &Technology, Dhaka-1000, Bangladeshe-mail: smsohelmahmud@gmail.com
2
 Dhaka-1000, Bangladeshe-mail: Professor, DepartmentofCivil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering &Technology, shoque@ce.buet.ac.bd 
ABSTRACT
Transportation System Management (TSM) is a package of short term measures to make the most productiveand cost-effective use of existing transportation facilities, services and modes. For the implementation of suchwell recognized, cost-effective management tools in a city area demand assessment of the potentiality andthe fulfillmentofimplementationpre-requirements. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the possibilities and inherent weakness for implementation of different transportation system management tools in Dhaka city. The study revealed that there are only about 4 km one-way road which is only 0.31 percent of total road network of Dhaka City Corporation (DCC). The city has not any tidal flow operational road. About 86  percent of major X-junction are 4 phases and about 90 percent of T-junction are 3 phases. Among the newly signalized 59 intersections, 47 (80%) intersections phases are equal to its approaches. There is no coordinated  signal system in the intersection of the city.There is very little options to introduce such tools for the huge lack of implementationrequirements in the present development condition. Correspondingdata has been collected  from the field observation, roadinventory and landuse survey and tried to justify with the prerequisite for theimplementation of the tools. At the very outset, the prevailing transport and travel scenario and existing road networkwhich is foundation of the implementation of TSM has discussed.
Keywords:
Transportation System Management 
,
One Way Operation, Tidal Flow Operation, Signal Co-ordination,
1.INTRODUCTION
Dhaka is one of the fast growing metropolitan cities with a highly dense and increasing population in the world.Haphazard urban expansion with a minimum attention to the living environment has been the most commonscenario here and existing transportation system has become hazardous for the entire city system due to itsinherent transport as well as road network deficiencies.Although, the city mainly depends on road-basedtransportation system, the amount of road network is far apart from the minimum requirements.Improvingroadway capacity through application of traffic management tools is a crucial issue to minimize congestion andto increase mobility and accessibility. At present, in Dhaka city, there are only about 4 km one-way road whichis only 0.31 percent of total road network of Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) (Mahmud, 2009). The city has notany tidal flow operational road. About 86 percent of major X-junction are 4 phases and about 90 percent of T- junction are 3 phases. Among the newly signalized 59 intersections, 47 (80%) intersections phases are equal toits approaches. There is no coordinated signal system in the intersection of the city. For the lack of interconnection between the side roads or for the absence of service road along the major road there is noclosing of side-street at all. Providing exclusive bus-lane for the implementation of BRT is an apprehensionissue in Dhakacity. For the implementationof different such tools in the present development condition of thecity,the potentiality or the implementationrequirements need to be assessedto check whether they arewarranted or not in the context of Dhaka,demand a comprehensive assessment.In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the possibilities and inherent weakness for implementation of different transportationsystem management tools in Dhaka city. Correspondingly data has been collected from the field observation,road inventory and landuse survey and tried to justify with the prerequisite for the implementation of the tools.At the very outset, the prevailing transport and travel scenario and existing road network has been pointed out.
 
1
 st 
 International Conference on Civil Engineering for Sustainable Development(ICCESD-2012
 )
2
2.PREVAILING TRANSPORTAND TRAVELING SCENARIO IN DHAKA METROPOLITANCITY
An assessment of the existing urban transport system of Dhaka revealed that it suffers from major constraintssuch as –fragmentation of organizational responsibility; inefficient regulatory frameworks; insufficient financialresources; poor allocation of road space; presence of too many low capacity and slow vehicles on major roads; poor traffic control, management and enforcement; underdeveloped public transport system; absence of adequate pedestrian facilities; poor linkage between land use planning and transport development and finally,lack of emphasis on environmentally sound and sustainable transport development.Various surveys (STP 2004, DITS 1994, JBIC 2000 etc.) undertaken and their analysis revealed the followinginformation about the city:
x
The average household income in 2004 was Tk15,000 ($253) per month while 3½% of households was inthe “high” income group exceeding Tk55,000 ($920) per month (STP 2004);
x
The average number of persons per households in 2004 was 4.12 (STP 2004);
x
Among households 7% either have or have access to a car, 4% owns motorcycle, 3% cycle rickshaw, 5% bicycle and 2% auto-rickshaw (STP 2004).
x
Almost 84% of household do not have any sort of transportvehicles and depend on public transport andonly 16% have some sort of vehicles (STP 2004).
x
Among the important purposes (i) home-work 31%, (ii) home-education 25%, (iii) home-shopping andothers 36%, and (iv) non-home based trips 8% (STP 2004).
x
On average, each household undertook 8½ trips per day by all modes (STP 2004);
x
At present, the number of trips that are generated per day is 21.98 million and after 20 years, the tripgeneration per day that is estimated is 159.63 million in 2024 (STP 2004).
x
The average trip length was found to be 5.37 kilometers (STP 2004).
x
Buses comprise a small proportion of vehicle numbers (11.5%) but carry about 77% of people (STP2004);
x
Rickshaws comprise 28% of all vehicles moving in the city and forms primary travel mode for 34% of all person trips (STP 2004);
x
Proportion of trips made by walking is substantial, though according to STP around 22%, DITS estimatedthat 62%; and
x
Road space occupied by rickshaws is 73%, and by cars, buses and tempo is 19.7%, 4.4%, and 0.4%,respectively (DITS, 1994).
x
Among the modes, car occupies the highest space for carrying a person which is 75.8%. Rickshawoccupies 21.9%, Baby taxi 17.9%, Bus 8.7% and Tempo 5% (STP 2004).
x
Auto-rickshaware a low proportion of vehicles comprising less than 10% of travel;
3.EXISTING ROAD NETWORK OF DHAKA METROPOLITAN CITY
An important part of every town is its transport system and particularly its road system for affecting smooth andefficient movement of people and commodities. For good accessibility, the circulation system of a city shouldmeet certain basic requirements. Firstly, the vehicle users should be able to move from one part of the city to theother easily, safely and efficiently. Secondly, the roads should be arranged in such a way so that they provideadequate access to every building for vehicles and pedestrians. To meet all these requirements a system of hierarchies in the road network is required, and this hierarchy results in a system which is composed of varioustypes of roads designed for different types of movements according to the function, character and volume of traffic. A well-articulated road network system usually occupies 20 to 40 percent of urban area depending uponthe size, function and character of the city(Chowdhury, 2001). There are only 9 percent of the total area areroad space where’s pavement space only 6 percent in the DCC area of the 1286 km of road comprising 61 km primary, 108 km secondary, 221 km connector, 573 km local and rest narrow road as shown in Table 1).
 
1
 st 
 International Conference on Civil Engineering for Sustainable Development(ICCESD-2012
 )
3Table 1: Different Types of Road Length, Pavement Area and Road Area of DCCClassesof roadLength(km)PercentPavementarea(sq. km)PercentPercent of total landareaRoad area(sq. km)PercentPercent of total landareaPrimary61.454.781.4616.471.081.8915.671.41Secondary108.208.411.8621.051.392.4119.941.80Connector221.3517.211.6819.041.252.4720.421.84Local573.7544.612.9333.172.184.2535.193.17 Narrow321.2724.980.9110.280.681.068.780.79Total1286.02100.008.84100.006.5912.09100.009.01Source: RMMS, 2004In further analysis, it is found that there are only 107 kilometers road which width more than 24 meters in allover the city of Dhaka among the total 1286 km road. Indeed, there are only 45 km of road which pavementwidth more than 24 meter. Indeed, among the total road of the Dhaka City Corporation area, 821.61 km (64%)road width is more or equal to 4.75 meter but according to pavement width, that’s are only 618.14 km (48%).So, although 203 km (16%)road width is more or equal to 4.75 meter but their pavement width is less than 4.75meter, i.e. emergency vehicle could not be entered that pavement width road. So, this 203 km road could bemade accessible by increasing the width of pavement of the road. But, other 464 km (36%) road pavement widthcould not be increased without demolishing existing road side development as road entire road width is less thanthat the desired level of accessibility but that’s are almost impossible as this problem is started from very beginning of the planning of the city and both side roads is highly buildup by multi-storied building and hugedensified with about 0.1 million people per sq. kilometer. Indeed, a city could not sustain with this huge so thinvein which is totally blocked or plugged or out of use.In further analysis, it is found that there are only 2.15 km of road is available for 10,000 of population and pavement space available only 0.015 sq. Km(STP, 2004). The availability of major roads in terms of either km per thousand populations or km per square kilometer of area is too low as compared to the other cities of developing countries. According to the World Bank statistics in the report on roadper capita in 9 cities of developing countries and 26 cities of developed countries is 0.5 and 4.5 meter respectively (Ingram and Liu,1998). Whereas, in Dhaka City Corporation area, there are per capitaroad is only0.0213 meters.This scarcityof the road length or area will be sustaining until the city remain. This is one of the fundamental inherentweaknessesof the city of Dhaka for their yield land use and transport panning.From the above discussion and facts, it is found that the existing road in the entire city road network is not quiteenough and is the one-forth of the minimum requirement of a modern city. Even, after the implementation of newly developed Strategic Transport Plan (STP), total road network would be around 1413.67 km and road and pavement area would be 15 (11%) and 11 (8%) sq.km respectively. Besides this, the roads which are existingare not proper functioned and are not fully operational with full capacity for the causes of huge alignment,layout or orientation problems of the entire road network.
4.TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
As the traffic on the existing road system in cities grows, congestion becomes a serious problem. Medium andlong-term solution like widening roads, providing elevated fly-overs, constructing bypasses, and urbanexpressways are costly. Simple and inexpensive solutions can tide over the crisis for same time. TransportationSystem Management (TSM) is a package of short term measures to make the most productive and cost-effectiveuse of existing transportation facilities, services and modes. TSM also embracesTravel Demand Management(TDM) and Traffic Supply Management (TSM)(Kadiyali, 2007).
4.1Travel Demand Management
TDM techniques are aimed at reducing the traffic flows, especially during the peak hour. Some of thetechniques commonly adopted arecar pooling and other ride-sharing programmes,peripheral parking schemes,chartered buses (Institutional buses) to serve areas of trip origins to common work place,staggering of officehours and flexible time of work,Internal shuttle service in the CBD,parking restraint ,road pricing ,entry fee , priority for buses in traffic, restrictions on entry of trucks during day-time.

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