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76159866-UST-GN-2011-Labor-Law-Proper(1)

76159866-UST-GN-2011-Labor-Law-Proper(1)

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01/21/2013

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F
UNDAMENTAL
P
RINCIPLES
ND
P
OLICIES
 
1
 
U
 
N
 
I
 
V
 
E
 
R
 
S
 
I
 
T
 
Y
 
O
 
F
 
S
 
A
 
N
 
T
 
O
 
T
 
O
 
M
 
A
 
S
 
Facultad de Derecho Civil
 
A
CADEMICS
 
C
HAIR
:
 
L
ESTER
 
J
AY
 
A
LAN
 
E.
 
F
LORES
 
II
 
V
ICE
 
C
HAIRS
 
F
OR
 
A
CADEMICS
:
 
K
AREN
 
J
OY
 
G.
 
S
ABUGO
 
&
 
J
OHN
 
H
ENRY
 
C.
 
M
ENDOZA
 
V
ICE
 
C
HAIR
 
FOR
 
A
DMINISTRATION
 
AND
 
F
INANCE
:
 
J
EANELLE
 
C.
 
L
EE
 
V
ICE
 
C
HAIRS
 
FOR
 
L
AY
O
UT
 
A
ND
 
D
ESIGN
:
 
E
ARL
 
L
OUIE
 
M.
 
M
ASACAYAN
 
&
 
T
HEENA
 
C.
 
M
ARTINEZ
 
LABOR
 
LAW
 
Q:
 
What
 
is
 
labor?
 
A:
 
It
 
is
 
the
 
exertion
 
by
 
human
 
beings
 
of 
 
physical
 
or
 
mental
 
efforts,
 
or
 
both,
 
towards
 
the
 
production
 
of 
 
goods
 
and
 
services.
 
Q:
 
What
 
is
 
labor
 
law?
 
A:
 
The
 
law
 
governing
 
the
 
rights
 
and
 
duties
 
of 
 
the
 
employer
 
and
 
employees
 
with
 
respect
 
to:
 
1.
The
 
terms
 
and
 
conditions
 
of 
 
employment
 
and
 
2.
Labor
 
disputes
 
arising
 
from
 
collective
 
bargaining
 
(CB)
 
respecting
 
such
 
terms
 
and
 
conditions.
 
Q:
 
What
 
is
 
the
 
purpose
 
of 
 
labor
 
legislation?
 
A:
 
Labor
 
legislation
 
is
 
an
 
exercise
 
of 
 
police
 
power.
 
The
 
purpose
 
of 
 
labor
 
legislation
 
is
 
to
 
regulate
 
the
 
relations
 
between
 
employers
 
(Ers)
 
and
 
employees
 
(Ees)
 
respecting
 
the
 
terms
 
and
 
conditions
 
of 
 
employment,
 
either
 
by
 
providing
 
for
 
certain
 
standards
 
or
 
for
 
a
 
legal
 
framework
 
within
 
which
 
better
 
terms
 
and
 
conditions
 
of 
 
work
 
could
 
be
 
negotiated
 
through
 
CB.
 
It
 
is
 
intended
 
to
 
correct
 
the
 
injustices
 
inherent
 
in
 
Er
Ee
 
relationship.
 
(2006
 
Bar
 
Question)
 
Q:
 
What
 
are
 
the
 
classifications
 
of 
 
labor
 
law?
 
A:
 
1.
 
Labor 
 
standards
 
– 
 
The
 
minimum
 
terms
 
and
 
conditions
 
of 
 
employment
 
prescribed
 
by
 
existing
 
laws,
 
rules
 
and
 
regulations
 
relating
 
to
 
wages,
 
hours
 
of 
 
work,
 
cost
of 
living
 
allowance
 
and
 
other
 
monetary
 
and
 
welfare
 
benefits
.
 
(Batong
 
Buhay 
 
Gold 
 
Mines,
 
Inc.
 
v.
 
Dela
 
Serna,
 
G.R.
 
No.
 
86963,
 
 August 
 
6,1999)
 
e.g.
 
13
th
 
month
 
pay
 
2.
 
Labor 
 
relations
 
– 
 
Defines
 
and
 
regulates
 
the
 
status,
 
rights
 
and
 
duties,
 
and
 
the
 
institutional
 
mechanisms,
 
that
 
govern
 
the
 
individual
 
and
 
collective
 
interactions
 
of 
 
Ers,
 
Ees,
 
or
 
their
 
representatives.
 
It
 
is
 
concerned
 
with
 
the
 
stabilization
 
of 
 
relations
 
of 
 
Er
 
and
 
Ees
 
and
 
seek
 
to
 
forestall
 
and
 
adjust
 
the
 
differences
 
between
 
them
 
by
 
the
 
encouragement
 
of 
 
collective
 
bargaining
 
and
 
the
 
settlement
 
of 
 
labor
 
disputes
 
through
 
conciliation,
 
mediation
 
and
 
arbitration.
 
e.g.
 
Additional
 
allowance
 
pursuant
 
to
 
CBA
 
3.
 
Social 
 
legislation
 
– 
 
It
 
includes
 
laws
 
that
 
provide
 
particular
 
kinds
 
of 
 
protection
 
or
 
benefits
 
to
 
society
 
or
 
segments
 
thereof 
 
in
 
furtherance
 
of 
 
social
 
 justice.
 
e.g.
 
GSIS
 
Law,
 
SSS
 
Law,
 
Philhealth
 
benefits
 
Q:
 
Is
 
there
 
any
 
distinction
 
between
 
labor
 
legislation
 
and
 
social
 
legislation?
 
Explain.
 
A:
 
Labor 
 
legislation
 
is
 
sometimes
 
distinguished
 
from
 
social
 
legislation
 
by
 
the
 
former
 
referring
 
to
 
labor
 
statutes,
 
like
 
Labor
 
Relations
 
Law
 
and
 
Labor
 
Standards,
 
and
 
the
 
latter
 
to
 
Social
 
Security
 
Laws.
 
Labor
 
legislation
 
focuses
 
on
 
the
 
rights
 
of 
 
the
 
worker
 
in
 
the
 
workplace.
 
Social 
 
legislation
 
is
 
a
 
broad
 
term
 
and
 
may
 
include
 
not
 
only
 
laws
 
that
 
give
 
social
 
security
 
protection,
 
but
 
also
 
those
 
that
 
help
 
the
 
worker
 
secure
 
housing
 
and
 
basic
 
necessities.
 
The
 
Comprehensive
 
Agrarian
 
Reform
 
Law
 
could
 
also
 
be
 
considered
 
a
 
social
 
legislation.
 
All
 
labor
 
laws
 
are
 
social
 
legislation,
 
but
 
not
 
all
 
social
 
legislation
 
is
 
labor
 
law.
 
(1994
 
Bar
 
Question)
 
Q:
 
What
 
are
 
the
 
sources
 
of 
 
labor
 
laws?
 
A:
 
1.
 
Labor
 
Code
 
and
 
other
 
related
 
special
 
legislation
 
2.
 
Contract
 
3.
 
Collective
 
Bargaining
 
Agreement
 
4.
 
Past
 
practices
 
5.
 
Company
 
policies
 
A.
 
FUNDAMENTAL
 
PRINCIPLES
 
AND
 
POLICIES
 
1.CONSTITUTIONAL
 
PROVISIONS
 
Q:
 
What
 
are
 
the
 
constitutional
 
mandates
 
with
 
regard
 
labor
 
laws?
 
A:
 
1.
 
Sec.
 
3
,
 
 Art.
 
 XIII
 
 –
 
The
 
State
 
shall
 
afford
 
full
 
protection
 
to
 
labor,
 
local
 
and
 
overseas,
 
organized
 
and
 
unorganized,
 
and
 
promote
 
full
 
employment
 
and
 
equality
 
of 
 
employment
 
opportunities
 
for
 
all.
 
It
 
shall
 
guarantee
 
the
 
rights
 
of 
 
all
 
workers
 
to
 
self 
organization,
 
collective
 
bargaining
 
and
 
negotiations,
 
and
 
peaceful
 
concerted
 
activities,
 
including
 
the
 
right
 
to
 
strike
 
in
 
accordance
 
with
 
law.
 
They
 
shall
 
be
 
entitled
 
to
 
security
 
of 
 
tenure,
 
humane
 
conditions
 
of 
 
work,
 
and
 
a
 
living
 
wage.
 
They
 
shall
 
also
 
participate
 
in
 
policy
 
and
 
decision
making
 
processes
 
affecting
 
their
 
 
UST
 
G
OLDEN
N
OTES
2011
L
ABOR
 
L
AW
 
T
EAM
:
 
A
DVISER
:
 
A
TTY
.
 
J
OEVEN
 
D.
 
D
ELLOSA
;
 
S
UBJECT
 
H
EAD
:
 
A
NGELO
 
S.
 
D
IOKNO
;
 
A
SST
.
 
S
UBJECT
 
H
EADS
:
 
K
AREN
 
S
ABUGO
,
 
G
ENESIS
 
R.
 
F
ULGENCIO
 
M
EMBERS
:
 
P
ALMA
 
C
LARISSA
 
V.
 
C
ARILLO
,
 
R
ANDOLPH
 
I
AN
 
C
LET
,
 
M
ICHAEL
 
A
ARON
 
P.
 
G
ACUTAN
,
 
L
ORRAINE
 
T
AGUIAM
 
2
 
rights
 
and
 
benefits
 
as
 
may
 
be
 
provided
 
by
 
law.
 
The
 
State
 
shall
 
promote
 
the
 
principle
 
of 
 
shared
 
responsibility
 
between
 
workers
 
and
 
employers
 
and
 
the
 
preferential
 
use
 
of 
 
voluntary
 
modes
 
in
 
settling
 
disputes,
 
including
 
conciliation,
 
and
 
shall
 
enforce
 
their
 
mutual
 
compliance
 
therewith
 
to
 
foster
 
industrial
 
peace.
 
The
 
State
 
shall
 
regulate
 
the
 
relations
 
between
 
workers
 
and
 
employers,
 
recognizing
 
the
 
right
 
of 
 
labor
 
to
 
its
 
 just
 
share
 
in
 
the
 
fruits
 
of 
 
production
 
and
 
the
 
right
 
of 
 
enterprises
 
to
 
reasonable
 
returns
 
to
 
investments,
 
and
 
to
 
expansion
 
and
 
growth.
 
2.
 
Sec.
 
9,
 
 Art.
 
II
 
 –
 
The
 
State
 
shall
 
promote
 
a
 
 just
 
and
 
dynamic
 
social
 
order
 
that
 
will
 
ensure
 
the
 
prosperity
 
and
 
independence
 
of 
 
the
 
nation
 
and
 
free
 
the
 
people
 
from
 
poverty
 
through
 
policies
 
that
 
provide
 
adequate
 
social
 
services,
 
promote
 
full
 
employment,
 
a
 
rising
 
standard
 
of 
 
living,
 
and
 
an
 
improved
 
quality
 
of 
 
life
 
for
 
all.
 
3.
 
Sec.
 
10,
 
 Art 
 
II
The
 
State
 
shall
 
promote
 
social
 
 justice
 
in
 
all
 
phases
 
of 
 
national
 
development.
 
4.
 
Sec.
 
11,
 
 Art 
 
II
The
 
State
 
values
 
the
 
dignity
 
of 
 
every
 
human
 
person
 
and
 
guarantees
 
full
 
respect
 
for
 
human
 
rights.
 
5.
 
Sec.
 
13,
 
 Art.
 
II
The
 
State
 
recognizes
 
the
 
vital
 
role
 
of 
 
the
 
youth
 
in
 
nation
building
 
and
 
shall
 
promote
 
and
 
protect
 
their
 
physical,
 
moral,
 
spiritual,
 
intellectual,
 
and
 
social
 
well
being.
 
It
 
shall
 
inculcate
 
in
 
the
 
youth
 
patriotism
 
and
 
nationalism,
 
and
 
encourage
 
their
 
involvement
 
in
 
public
 
and
 
civic
 
affairs.
 
6.
 
Sec.
 
14,
 
 Art.
 
II
The
 
State
 
recognizes
 
the
 
role
 
of 
 
women
 
in
 
nation
building,
 
and
 
shall
 
ensure
 
the
 
fundamental
 
equality
 
before
 
the
 
law
 
of 
 
women
 
and
 
men.
 
7.
 
Sec.
 
18,
 
 Art.
 
II
 
 –
 
The
 
State
 
affirms
 
labor
 
as
 
a
 
primary
 
social
 
economic
 
force.
 
It
 
shall
 
protect
 
the
 
rights
 
of 
 
workers
 
and
 
promote
 
their
 
welfare.
 
8.
 
Sec.
 
20,
 
 Art.
 
II
The
 
State
 
recognizes
 
the
 
indispensable
 
role
 
of 
 
the
 
private
 
sector,
 
encourages
 
private
 
enterprise,
 
and
 
provides
 
incentives
 
to
 
needed
 
investments.
 
9.
 
Sec.
 
1,
 
 Art.
 
III
No
 
person
 
shall
 
be
 
deprived
 
of 
 
life,
 
liberty,
 
or
 
property
 
without
 
due
 
process
 
of 
 
law,
 
nor
 
shall
 
any
 
person
 
be
 
denied
 
the
 
equal
 
protection
 
of 
 
the
 
laws.
 
10.
 
Sec.
 
4,
 
 Art.
 
III
No
 
law
 
shall
 
be
 
passed
 
abridging
 
the
 
freedom
 
of 
 
speech,
 
of 
 
expression,
 
or
 
of 
 
the
 
press,
 
or
 
the
 
right
 
of 
 
the
 
people
 
peaceably
 
to
 
assemble
 
and
 
petition
 
the
 
government
 
for
 
redress
 
of 
 
grievances.
 
11.
 
Sec.
 
8,
 
 Art.
 
III
 
 –
 
The
 
right
 
of 
 
the
 
people,
 
including
 
those
 
employed
 
in
 
the
 
public
 
and
 
private
 
sectors,
 
to
 
form
 
unions,
 
associations,
 
or
 
societies
 
for
 
purposes
 
not
 
contrary
 
to
 
law
 
shall
 
not
 
be
 
abridged.
 
12.
 
Sec.
 
1,
 
 Art.
 
 XIII
The
 
Congress
 
shall
 
give
 
highest
 
priority
 
to
 
the
 
enactment
 
of 
 
measures
 
that
 
protect
 
and
 
enhance
 
the
 
right
 
of 
 
all
 
the
 
people
 
to
 
human
 
dignity,
 
reduce
 
social,
 
economic,
 
and
 
political
 
inequalities,
 
and
 
remove
 
cultural
 
inequities
 
by
 
equitably
 
diffusing
 
wealth
 
and
 
political
 
power
 
for
 
the
 
common
 
good.
 
To
 
this
 
end,
 
the
 
State
 
shall
 
regulate
 
the
 
acquisition,
 
ownership,
 
use,
 
and
 
disposition
 
of 
 
property
 
and
 
its
 
increments.
 
13.
 
Sec.
 
2,
 
 Art.
 
 XIII
The
 
promotion
 
of 
 
social
 
 justice
 
shall
 
include
 
the
 
commitment
 
to
 
create
 
economic
 
opportunities
 
based
 
on
 
freedom
 
of 
 
initiative
 
and
 
self 
reliance.
 
14.
 
Sec.
 
14
,
 
 Art.
 
 XIII
 
 –
 
The
 
State
 
shall
 
protect
 
working
 
women
 
by
 
providing
 
safe
 
and
 
healthful
 
working
 
conditions,
 
taking
 
into
 
account
 
their
 
maternal
 
functions,
 
and
 
such
 
facilities
 
and
 
opportunities
 
that
 
will
 
enhance
 
their
 
welfare
 
and
 
enable
 
them
 
to
 
realize
 
their
 
full
 
potential
 
in
 
the
 
service
 
of 
 
the
 
nation.
 
Q:
 
What
 
is
 
the
 
State
 
policy
 
on
 
labor
 
as
 
found
 
in
 
the
 
constitution
 
(Sec.
 
3,
 
Art.
 
XIII)?
 
A:
 
1.
 
Afford
 
full
 
protection
 
to
 
labor
 
2.
 
Promote
 
full
 
employmen
t
 
3.
 
Ensure
 
equal
 
work
 
opportunities
 
regardless
 
of 
 
sex,
 
race,
 
or
 
creed
 
 
F
UNDAMENTAL
P
RINCIPLES
ND
P
OLICIES
 
4.
 
Assure
 
the
 
rights
 
of 
 
workers
 
to
 
self 
 
organization
,
 
security
 
of 
 
tenure
,
 
 just
 
and
 
humane
 
conditions
 
of 
 
work
,
 
participate
 
in
 
policy
 
and
 
decision
making
 
processes
 
affecting
 
their
 
right
 
and
 
benefits
 
5.
 
Regulate
 
the
 
relations
 
between
 
workers
 
and
 
employers
 
Q:
 
What
 
are
 
the
 
basic
 
rights
 
of 
 
workers
 
guaranteed
 
by
 
the
 
Constitution
 
(Sec.
 
3,
 
Art.
 
XIII)?
 
A:
 
1.
 
Security
 
of 
 
tenure
 
2.
 
Receive
 
a
 
living
 
wage
 
3.
 
Humane
 
working
 
conditions
 
4.
 
Share
 
in
 
the
 
fruits
 
of 
 
production
 
5.
 
Organize
 
themselves
 
6.
 
Conduct
 
collective
 
bargaining
 
or
 
negotiation
 
with
 
management
 
7.
 
Engage
 
in
 
peaceful
 
concerted
 
activities
 
including
 
strike
 
8.
 
Participate
 
in
 
policy
 
and
 
decision
 
making
 
processes
 
Q:
 
What
 
is
 
the
 
principle
 
of 
 
non
oppression?
 
A:
 
The
 
principle
 
mandates
 
capital
 
and
 
labor
 
not
 
to
 
act
 
oppressively
 
against
 
each
 
other
 
or
 
impair
 
the
 
interest
 
and
 
convenience
 
of 
 
the
 
public.
 
The
 
protection
 
to
 
labor
 
clause
 
in
 
the
 
Constitution
 
is
 
not
 
designed
 
to
 
oppress
 
or
 
destroy
 
capital.
 
(Capili 
 
v.
 
NLRC,
 
G.R.
 
No.
 
117378,
 
Mar.
 
26,
 
1997)
 
3
 
U
 
N
 
I
 
V
 
E
 
R
 
S
 
I
 
T
 
Y
 
O
 
F
 
S
 
A
 
N
 
T
 
O
 
T
 
O
 
M
 
A
 
S
 
Facultad de Derecho Civil
 
A
CADEMICS
 
C
HAIR
:
 
L
ESTER
 
J
AY
 
A
LAN
 
E.
 
F
LORES
 
II
 
V
ICE
 
C
HAIRS
 
F
OR
 
A
CADEMICS
:
 
K
AREN
 
J
OY
 
G.
 
S
ABUGO
 
&
 
J
OHN
 
H
ENRY
 
C.
 
M
ENDOZA
 
V
ICE
 
C
HAIR
 
FOR
 
A
DMINISTRATION
 
AND
 
F
INANCE
:
 
J
EANELLE
 
C.
 
L
EE
 
V
ICE
 
C
HAIRS
 
FOR
 
L
AY
O
UT
 
A
ND
 
D
ESIGN
:
 
E
ARL
 
L
OUIE
 
M.
 
M
ASACAYAN
 
&
 
T
HEENA
 
C.
 
M
ARTINEZ
 
2.NEW
 
CIVIL
 
CODE
 
AND
 
OTHER
 
LAWS
 
Q:
 
What
 
are
 
other
 
related
 
laws
 
to
 
labor?
 
A:
 
1.
 
Civil
 
Code
 
a.
 
 Art.
 
1700
 
 –
 
The
 
relations
 
between
 
capital
 
and
 
labor
 
are
 
not
 
merely
 
contractual.
 
They
 
are
 
so
 
impressed
 
with
 
public
 
interest
 
that
 
labor
 
contracts
 
must
 
yield
 
to
 
the
 
common
 
good.
 
Therefore,
 
such
 
contracts
 
are
 
subject
 
to
 
the
 
special
 
laws
 
on
 
labor
 
unions,
 
collective
 
bargaining,
 
strikes
 
and
 
lockouts,
 
closed
 
shop,
 
wages,
 
working
 
conditions,
 
hours
 
of 
 
labor
 
and
 
similar
 
subjects.
 
b.
 
 Art.
 
1701
 
 –
 
Neither
 
capital
 
nor
 
labor
 
shall
 
act
 
oppressively
 
against
 
the
 
other,
 
or
 
impair
 
the
 
interest
 
or
 
convenience
 
of 
 
the
 
public.
 
c.
 
 Art.
 
1702
 
 –
 
In
 
case
 
of 
 
doubt,
 
all
 
labor
 
legislation
 
and
 
all
 
labor
 
contracts
 
shall
 
be
 
construed
 
in
 
favor
 
of 
 
the
 
safety
 
and
 
decent
 
living
 
for
 
the
 
laborer.
 
d.
 
 Art.
 
1703
 
 –
 
No
 
contract
 
which
 
practically
 
amounts
 
to
 
involuntary
 
servitude,
 
under
 
any
 
guise
 
whatsoever,
 
shall
 
be
 
valid.
 
2.
 
Revised
 
Penal
 
Code
 
 Art.
 
289
 
 –
 
Formation,
 
maintenance
 
and 
 
 prohibition
 
of 
 
combination
 
of 
 
capital 
 
or 
 
labor 
 
through
 
violence
 
or 
 
threats
.
 
 –
 
Any
 
person
 
who,
 
for
 
the
 
purpose
 
of 
 
organizing,
 
maintaining
 
or
 
preventing
 
coalitions
 
or
 
capital
 
or
 
labor,
 
strike
 
of 
 
laborers
 
or
 
lock
out
 
of 
 
employees,
 
shall
 
employ
 
violence
 
or
 
threats
 
in
 
such
 
a
 
degree
 
as
 
to
 
compel
 
or
 
force
 
the
 
laborers
 
or
 
employers
 
in
 
the
 
free
 
and
 
legal
 
exercise
 
of 
 
their
 
industry
 
or
 
work,
 
if 
 
the
 
act
 
shall
 
not
 
constitute
 
a
 
more
 
serious
 
offense
 
in
 
accordance
 
with
 
the
 
provisions
 
of 
 
the
 
RPC.
 
3.
 
Special
 
Laws
 
a.
 
GSIS
 
Law
 
b.
 
13
th
 
Month
 
Pay
 
Law
 
c.
 
Retirement
 
Pay
 
Law
 
d.
 
SSS
 
Law
 
e.
 
Paternity
 
Leave
 
Act
 
f.
 
Anti
 
 –
 
Child
 
Labor
 
Act
 
g.
 
Anti
 
 –
 
Sexual
 
Harassment
 
Act
 
h.
 
Magna
 
Carta
 
for
 
Public
 
Health
 
Workers
 
i.
 
Solo
 
Parents
 
Welfare
 
Act
 
of 
 
2000
 
 j.
 
National
 
Health
 
Insurance
 
Act
 
as
 
amended
 
by
 
R.A.
 
9241
 
k.
 
Migrant
 
Workers
 
and
 
Overseas
 
Filipinos
 
Act
 
of 
 
1995
 
as
 
amended
 
by
 
RA
 
10022
 
l.
 
PERA
 
Act
 
of 
 
2008
 
m.
 
Home
 
Development
 
Mutual
 
Fund
 
Law
 
of 
 
2009
 
n.
 
The
 
Magna
 
Carta
 
of 
 
Women
 
o.
 
Comprehensive
 
Agrarian
 
Reform
 
Law
 
as
 
amended
 
by
 
R.A.
 
9700
 
3.LABOR
 
CODE
 
Q:
 
What
 
is
 
the
 
aim
 
of 
 
labor
 
laws?
 
A:
 
The
 
 justification
 
of 
 
labor
 
laws
 
is
 
social
 
 justice.
 
Social
 
 justice
 
is
 
“neither
 
communism,
 
nor
 
despotism,
 
nor
 
atomism,
 
nor
 
anarchy,”
 
but
 
the
 
humanization
 
of 
 
laws
 
and
 
the
 
equalization
 
of 
 
social
 
and
 
economic
 
force
 
by
 
the
 
State
 
so
 
that
 
 justice
 
in
 
its
 
rational
 
and
 
objectively
 
secular
 
conception
 
may
 
at
 
least
 
be
 
approximated.
 
Social
 
 justice
 
means
 
the
 
promotion
 
of 
 
the
 
welfare
 
of 
 
all
 
the
 
people,
 
the
 

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