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Coursera Gamification Class Review - Week 3

Coursera Gamification Class Review - Week 3

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Published by Ivan Kuo
A review of Week 3's materials in the Coursera Gamification Class
A review of Week 3's materials in the Coursera Gamification Class

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Published by: Ivan Kuo on Sep 25, 2012
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04/22/2013

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1
CourseraGamificationClass:Week3Review
BySudarshanGopaladesikan
MotivationandPsychology(I)1.
 
GamificationasMotivationalDesign
a.
 
Howdoyoudriveuserstoengageindesiredbehavior?Whatmotivatesyourtargetaudience?
b.
 
Whataredifferentmotivators(therearemanymore)
i.
 
Intrinsic—motivationthatmeansmosttoyou,regardlessofanyexternalrewardsorbenefits.
ii.
 
Extrinsic—motivationthatstemsfromreceivingexternalbenefits.
iii.
 
Monetary—moneyisthesourceofmotivation
iv.
 
Career—acertainphaseinsomeone’scareermightgivethemcertainmotivation
c.
 
EssentialQuestions:Whatmotivatespeople?
d.
 
Itisimportanttopayattentiontosignalsthatindicateactionthatwascausedbyintrinsicmotivation.Tappingintothismotivationwillcreateastrongconnectionbetweenacompanyandafan.
e.
 
Therearemanydifferenttypesofmotivators,anditseemsthatthesearesubjectivethings…..implyingmotivationmaynotalwaysbeanobjectivething.Thisurgesustopayattentiontothetargetaudiencewantsanddesires.
2.
 
Behaviorism
a.
 
Behaviorismtakesalookatpeople’ssubjectiveactions,notreallythesubjectivestateofminds(seeblackbox)
b.
 
Theycallitthe“blackbox”,onlyfocusedontheinputandoutputofhumanactions.Whatpeopledo,notwhy.
c.
 
Stimulus—eventthataffectsthesubject 
d.
 
Response—areactiontothestimulus
 
2
e.
 
Classicalcondition—stimulusandresponsearerelated.Abellringcausesadogtosalivate.
f.
 
Operantcondition—thereisafeedbackloopbuiltinbetweenstimulusandresponse.Forexample,theswitchandpieceoffoodcreatesalearningfeedbacklooptorealizethattheswitchproducesfood.
g.
 
BehavioralEconomics
i.
 
Peoplesufferfromlossaversion,powerofdefaults,andconfirmationbias
1.
 
Ratherthanbeinginterestedinwhypeoplehatelossmorethanlovegain,weseethatthereisaconsistentpatternofbehaviorhere.Forbehaviorism,itisallaboutthewhat,notreallythewhy.
ii.
 
Observation,feedbackloops,andreinforcementareallgreatkeyfeaturesoflearning
iii.
 
Rememberthatgamificationisaninterdisciplinarystudy.Someofusmaybeinclinedtowanttoknowthewhy’sbehindpsychology,butgamedesignimplementationshouldrealizethe“what’s”aswellasthe“why’s”.Irrationalandsuboptimalthinkingderivedfromhumanmisconceptionsdomakeupalotofthedifferencebetweentheoreticalgametheoryandhowhumansplay.Sincegamificationisnotgametheory,thisisakeydifferencetonote.
3.
 
BehaviorisminGamfication
a.
 
WatchWhatPeopleDo
i.
 
Behaviorismdoesexplainalotbysimplylookingatwhatpeopledo.Sinceeconomictheoryisbasedon“supposed”optimalthinking,economicdecision-makingvariesgreatlyfromhowhumansactuallymakedecisions.
b.
 
ImportanceofFeedback 
i.
 
Prof.Werbachwilltalkaboutrewardscheduleslateroninthesegment,butfeedbackiskey!Humanshavethecuriositytoknowwhataretheoutcomesoftheiractions.Dependingonthesituation,thinkaboutwhen
 
3
humansshouldreceivethefeedback:immediatelyaftertheactionoradelayedconsequence?
c.
 
ConditioningThroughConsequences
i.
 
Similartooperantcondition.Learningthroughassociationbetweenastimulus,response,andoutcome.AnexampleisthewitheringprocessinFarmville.Peopleareconditionedtochecktheirfarmregularlysothecropsdon’twither.
d.
 
ReinforcementofRewards
i.
 
Rewardsareonlyoneofthemanygamemechanicsadesignercanemploy,butmanygamecomponentsmakeuprewards(achievements,unlockables,gifts,virtualgoods,leaderboards,quests,etc.).Rewardsarepowerfulastheyhelpdesignersguideuserstowards“desiredactions”
e.
 
DopamineSystem
i.
 
Dopamineisourbody’schemicalwayofexpressingpleasuretous.Dopamineisrelatedtobothlearningandpleasure.Rewards,elements,conditioning,feedback,etc.andeverythingthathelpstowardsthelearningprocessperiodicallyalsogivesa“shot”ofdopaminetothebrainthatinducespleasure.Thispleasurerushalsoactsasamotivator.
f.
 
Aquicknoteon“desiredactions”.Desiredactionsaresimplythegoalsthatthedesignerwantstheuserstoultimatelydo.Forexample,abusinessmay“gamify”theirsocialmediachannelssothatthe“desiredactions”arecommenting,sharing,liking,posting,etc.Ultimately,thecompanymaywanttochangetheir“desiredactions”topurchasingservices,andatthattime,thegamifiedelementsmayhavetochangetohelpaccountforthebusiness’newgoals.Alwaysknowyour“desiredactions”.
4.
 
RewardStructures
a.
 
Whatmakesrewardssoaddicting?
b.
 
CognitiveEvaluationTheoryhelpsexplainsdifferenttypesofrewards:
i.
 
Tangible/intangible

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