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Vacuum Isolatie Annex 39 Report Subtask-A

Vacuum Isolatie Annex 39 Report Subtask-A

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Published by: Bonusje on Sep 26, 2012
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HiPTI - High Performance Thermal InsulationIEA/ECBCS Annex 39
 
Vacuum Insulation Panels
Study on VIP-components and Panels for Service LifePrediction of VIP in Building Applications(Subtask A)
Institutions and Authors
EMPA - Switzerland 
Hans Simmler Samuel Brunner 
ZAE-Bayern - Germany 
Ulrich HeinemannHubert Schwab
NRC - Canada
Kumar KumaranPhalguni Mukhopadhyaya
 
CSTB - France
Daniel QuénardHébert Sallée
Fraunhofer IVV - Germany 
Klaus Noller Esra Kücükpinar-NiarchosCornelia Stramm
 
TU Delft - Netherlands
Martin TenpierikHans Cauberg
Dr.Eicher+Pauli AG - Switzerland 
 Markus Erb (Operating Agent)
September 2005
 
High Performance Thermal InsulationIEA/ECBCS Annex 39
 
Impressum
IEA/ECBCS Annex 39
The work presented here is a contribution to Annex 39 of IEA/ECBCS-Implementing Agreement.
Title
Vacuum Insulation Panels - Study on VIP-components and Panels for Service Life Prediction of VIPin Building Applications (Subtask A)
Institutions & Authors
EMPA: Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Switzerland)Hans Simmler, Samuel Brunner ZAE-Bayern: Bavarian Centre for Applied Energy Research (Germany)Ulrich Heinemann, Hubert SchwabNRC-IRC: National Research Council - Institute for Research in Construction (Canada)Kumar Kumaran, Phalguni MukhopadhyayaCSTB: Scientific and Technical Centre for Construction (France)Daniel Quénard, Hébert SalléeFraunhofer IVV: Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging (Germany)Klaus Noller, Esra Kücükpinar-Niarchos, Cornelia StrammTU Delft Technical University of Delft (Netherlands)Martin Tenpierik, Hans CaubergDr.Eicher+Pauli AG (Switzerland)Markus Erb - Operating Agent
September 2005
 
High Performance Thermal InsulationIEA/ECBCS Annex 39
 
Page I
Summary
In accordance with the aims of the Kyoto protocol, a great energy-saving potential and there-fore potential for reducing CO
2
emissions has been found in the building sector. In 1997,about 25% of the energy consumption in the EU came from room heating. Increasinglyrestrictive building regulations focus on using better thermal insulation, which means insula-tion layers of up to 30 to 50 cm, if conventional insulation material is used. The motivation for examining the applicability of high performance thermal insulation in buildings (i.e. evacuatedinsulation in the form of vacuum insulation panels) came from the difficulties involved inrenovation – namely severe space limitations and therefore technical constraints, as well asfrom aesthetic considerations. The thermal resistance of evacuated insulation is a factor of five to ten better than conventional insulation of the same thickness. Vacuum insulationpanels (VIP) in general are flat elements consisting of an open porous (and thereforeevacuation-capable) core material which has to withstand the external load caused by at-mospheric pressure, as well as a sufficiently gas-tight envelope to maintain the requiredquality of the vacuum.Nano-structured materials have been found to require the least quality of vacuum, which hasto be achieved and to be maintained. In panels basically made of pressed fumed silica, thecontribution of the gas to the total heat transfer is virtually eliminated even at an internal gaspressure of a few hundred Pascals. The requirements on the gas-tightness of the envelopeare also relatively moderate for these extremely fine-structured core materials – the largestpores are in the order of 100 nanometres. Thin laminated metal foils and special high-barrier metallized laminates consisting mainly of polymers are therefore used for the envelope. Thisreport focuses especially on this type of VIP, which combines relatively simple and flexibleproduction methods (and is therefore currently the least expensive alternative) with an ac-ceptable service life of 30 to 50 years before the thermal barrier is impaired in any way dueto air permeation into the panels. Even if the vacuum failed completely, the thermal resistivityof this filler material is twice as efficient as that of any standard insulation material.Investigations have been performed individually on the core materials and laminates de-signed for the envelope as well as manufactured VIP. All the core materials investigated in this study are fumed silica products with minor differ-ences, particularly in the nature of the fibres used for reinforcement. The densities are in therange of 160 kg/m³ to 190 kg/m³. The porosity is higher than 90%, the specific surface areais higher than 200 m²/g. High sorption capability results from the huge specific surface area;at 75% relative humidity, 0.05 kg of water per kg material is typically adsorbed. Thus fumedsilica may act as a desiccant. At a low gas pressure (100 Pa) and at room temperature the total thermal conductivity of thecore material is about 0.004 W/(m·K) - 0.001 W/(m·K) from infrared radiative heat transfer and 0.003 W/(m·K) due to heat conduction via the solid skeleton. The thermal conductivityincreases with the internal gas pressure to about 0.020 W/(m·K) at ambient pressure. At10°C the impact of water content on the thermal conductivity was found to be linear with anincrease of about 0.0005 W/(m·K) per mass% of adsorbed water.Laminates with the highest grade barrier properties had to be determined to fulfil the re-quirements of long-term application in buildings. As with all polymeric films, the transmissionrate for water vapour for these laminates was found to be several orders of magnitudegreater than those for oxygen or nitrogen. Measuring extremely low permeation rates ischallenging and very time-consuming. A fast measurement tool was developed to derive

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