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Cojocaru Romanian Grammar

Cojocaru Romanian Grammar

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Published by: RoxanagaloiuroxanaR on Sep 26, 2012
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03/31/2014

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 1
Cojocaru
Romanian Grammar
 
0. INTRODUCTION0.1. Romania and the Romanians0.2. The Romanian language1. ALPHABET AND PHONETICS1.1. The Romanian alphabet1.2. Potential difficulties related to pronunciation and reading1.2.1. Pronunciation1.2.1.1. Vowels [
ǝ
] and [y]1.2.1.2. Consonants [r], [t] and [d]1.2.2. Reading1.2.2.1. Unique letters1.2.2.2. The letter
in final position1.2.2.3. The letter
e
in the initial position1.2.2.4. The
ce
,
ci 
,
 ge
,
 gi 
,
che
,
chi 
,
 ghe
,
 ghi 
groups1.2.2.5. Diphthongs and triphthongs1.2.2.6. Vowels in hiatus1.2.2.7. Stress1.2.2.8. Liaison2. MORPHOPHONEMICS2.1. Inflection2.1.1. Declension of nominals2.1.2. Conjugation of verbs2.1.3. Invariable parts of speech2.2. Common morphophonemic alternations2.2.1. Vowel mutations2.2.1.1. the
o/oa
mutation2.2.1.2. the
e/ea
mutation2.2.1.3. the
ă
 /e
mutation2.2.1.4. the
a/e
mutation2.2.1.5. the
a/ 
ă
mutation2.2.1.6. the
ea/e
mutation2.2.1.7. the
oa/o
mutation2.2.1.8. the
ie/ia
mutation2.2.1.9. the
â/i 
mutation2.2.1.10. the
a/ 
ă
mutation2.2.1.11. the
u/o
mutation2.2.2. Consonant mutations2.2.2.1. the
c/ce
 
or 
 
ci 
mutation2.2.2.2. the
 g/ge
 
or 
 
 gi 
mutation2.2.2.3. the
s/ 
ş
+ i 
mutation2.2.2.4. the
st/ 
ş
t + i 
mutation2.2.2.5. the
str/ 
ş
tr + i 
mutation2.2.2.6. the
sc/ 
ş
t + i or e
mutation2.2.2.7. the
ş
c/ 
ş
t + e or i 
mutation2.2.2.8. the
t/ 
 ţ 
+ i or e
mutation2.2.2.9. the
d/z + i/â or 
ă
mutation2.2.2.10. the
 z/j + i 
mutation2.2.2.11. the
l/Ø + i 
mutation
 
 2
2.2.2.12. the
n/Ø + i 
mutation3. NOMINALS3.1. Noun3.1.1. Gender of nouns in the singular3.1.1.1. Assigning gender3.1.1.1.1. Noun ending3.1.1.1.2. Lexical meaning3.1.1.1.3. The 'one-two' test3.1.2. Number3.1.2.1. Forming the plural3.1.2.1.1. Masculine:
un – doi 
3.1.2.1.2. Feminine:
o – dou
ă
 3.1.2.1.3. Neuter:
un - dou
ă
 3.1.2.2. Plural endings3.1.2.2.1. The ending -
3.1.2.2.2. The ending
-le / -ele
 3.1.2.2.3. The endings
-e
and
-uri 
 3.1.3. Case3.1.3.1. Case forms3.1.3.1.1. Declension with the indefinite article3.1.3.1.2. Declension with the definite article3.1.3.2. Accusative (direct object) with and without the preposition
 pe
 3.1.3.2.1. The direct object with
 pe
 3.1.3.2.2. The direct object without
 pe
3.1.3.3. The accusative with other prepositions3.1.3.4. Genitive and dative cases3.1.3.4.1. Differentiating the genitive and dative3.1.3.4.1.1. The genitive3.1.3.4.1.2. The dative3.1.3.4.2. Proper names of persons in the genitive-dative3.1.3.5. Vocative3.1.3.5.1. Forming the vocative3.1.3.5.2. Usage of the vocative3.1.3.5.2.1. Adjective + noun in the vocative3.1.3.5.2.2. Adjective + possessive + noun in the vocative3.2. Article3.2.1. The definite and the indefinite article3.2.1.1. The indefinite and the definite article in the singular3.2.1.1.1. Indefinite article3.2.1.1.2. Definite article3.2.1.2. The indefinite and the definite article in the plural3.2.1.2.1. Indefinite article3.2.1.2.2. Definite article3.2.1.3. Article usage and omission3.2.2. The demonstrative or adjectival article3.2.3. The possessive or genitival article3.3. Adjective3.3.1. Adjectival agreement3.3.1.1. Forming the feminine and the plural of the adjectives3.3.1.2. Four-form adjectives3.3.1.3. Three-form adjectives3.3.1.4. Two-form adjectives
 
 3
3.3.1.5. One-form adjectives3.3.2. The usage of the adjectives in pre-position3.3.3. Adjectival declension3.3.4. Degrees of comparison of the adjective3.3.4.1. The comparative degree3.3.4.1.1. The comparative of superiority3.3.4.1.2. The comparative of equality3.3.4.1.3. The comparative of inferiority3.3.4.2. The superlative degree3.3.4.2.1. The superlative relative of superiority3.3.4.2.2. The superlative relative of inferiority3.3.4.2.3. The superlative absolute3.3.4.3. Adjectives that do not form degrees of comparison3.4. Pronoun3.4.1. Personal pronouns3.4.1.1. The nominative case of the personal pronouns3.4.1.2. The accusative case of the personal pronouns3.4.1.2.1. Full and clitic forms of the accusative3.4.1.2.2. The personal pronoun used as a direct object3.4.1.3. The dative case of the personal pronouns3.4.1.3.1. Full and clitic forms of the dative3.4.1.3.2. The personal pronoun used as an indirect object3.4.1.4. Basic patterns of combining personal pronouns in the accusative / dative withverbs3.4.1.4.1. With the verb in the present indicative3.4.1.4.2. With the verb in the compound perfect3.4.1.4.3. With the verb in the future 1 indicative3.4.1.4.4. With the verb in the present subjunctive3.4.1.5. Differentiating the accusative and the dative unstressed personal pronouns3.4.1.6. Verbal constructions with personal pronouns in the accusative and dative3.4.1.7. Combinations of double personal pronouns (dative and accusative) with verbs3.4.1.7.1. With the present, compound perfect and future 1 indicative3.4.1.7.2. With the present subjunctive3.4.2. Pronouns of politeness3.4.2.1. The nominative case of the pronouns of politeness3.4.2.2. Declension of the pronouns of politeness3.4.3. Reflexive pronouns3.4.3.1. Clitic forms of the reflexive pronouns3.4.3.2. The long form of the reflexive pronouns3.4.4. Pronouns of reinforcement3.4.5. Possessive pronouns and pronominal adjectives3.4.5.1. The possessive pronominal adjectives in the nominative-accusative case3.4.5.2. The possessive pronouns in the nominative-accusative case3.4.5.3. The declension of the possessive pronominal adjectives3.4.5.4. The possessive value of the unstressed personal and reflexive pronouns in thedative3.4.6. Demonstrative pronouns and pronominal adjectives3.4.6.1. The demonstrative pronouns of proximity and remoteness in the nominative case3.4.6.2. The demonstrative pronouns of remoteness in the nominative case3.4.6.3. The demonstrative pronominal adjectives of proximity and remoteness3.4.6.4. The declension of the demonstrative pronouns / pronominal adjectives of proximity and remoteness

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