ABOUT THE AUTHOR
is a freelance environmental and sustainability researcher with over20 years’ experience in the environmental eld in the charitable, educational andprivate sectors. Formerly head of research for Hong Kong public policy thinktank Civic Exchange, she has a long interest in public policy affairs at both nationaland local levels. She can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
With grateful thanks to statisticians at the Department for Transport,Ofce for Budget Responsibility and Ofce for National Statistics foradditional information and clarication on some of the gures usedin this report.
IPPR, the Institute for Public Policy Research, is theUK’s leading progressive thinktank. We producerigorous research and innovative policy ideas for a fair,democratic and sustainable world.We are open and independent in how we work, andwith ofces in London and the North of England, IPPRspans a full range of local and national policy debates.Our international partnerships extend IPPR’s inuenceand reputation across the world.IPPR4th Floor14 Buckingham StreetLondon WC2N 6DF T: +44 (0)20 7470 6100E: email@example.comRegistered charity no. 800065 This paper was rst published in August 2012. © 2012 The contents and opinions expressed in this paper arethose of the author(s) only.