IPPR, the Institute for Public Policy Research, is theUK’s leading progressive thinktank. We producerigorous research and innovative policy ideas for a fair,democratic and sustainable world.We are open and independent in how we work, andwith ofces in London and the North of England, IPPRspans a full range of local and national policy debates.Our international partnerships extend IPPR’s inuenceand reputation across the world.IPPR4th Floor14 Buckingham StreetLondon WC2N 6DF T: +44 (0)20 7470 6100E: firstname.lastname@example.orgRegistered charity no. 800065 This paper was rst published in August 2012. © 2012 The contents and opinions expressed in this paper arethose of the author(s) only.
ABOUT GL GARRAD HASSAN
GL Garrad Hassan is the world’s largest dedicatedrenewable energy consultancy and a recognised technicalauthority on the subject. Part of the GL Group whichoperates across the maritime services, oil and gas andrenewables industries, GL Garrad Hassan has no equitystake in any technology, device or project.For further information, please visitwww.gl-garradhassan.com.
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
is a research fellow at IPPR.
is a senior policy consultant at GL Garrad Hassan.
is a senior principal engineer at GL Garrad Hassan.
The authors would like to thank Professor Nick Jenkins
,of the Institute of Energy, Cardiff University, for peer reviewing thetechnical aspects of this report. We would also like to thank WillStraw, Nick Pearce, Dave Williams and Fliss Jones for reviewingearlier drafts of the report.