ABOUT THE AUTHORS
is a senior research ellow at IPPR.
is a researcher at IPPR.
The authors would like to thank Graeme Cooke, TonyDolphin, Kanishka Narayan, Jonty Oli-Cooper, Nick Pearce and James Purnell or input on the project andcomments on earlier drats.Special thanks to the advisory panel or the projector sparing the time to help us develop and testour arguments: John Appleby, Nicholas Barr,Craig Barker, Nick Bosanquet, Niki Cleal, ChrisCurry, Howard Glennerster, Paul Johnsonand Jonathan Portes.Many thanks also to A4e or providinggenerous fnancial support orthe project. The authors retainresponsibility or the contents o thisreport.
IPPR, the Institute or Public Policy Research, is theUK’s leading progressive thinktank. We producerigorous research and innovative policy ideas or a air,democratic and sustainable world.We are open and independent in how we work, andwith ofces in London and the North o England, IPPRspans a ull range o local and national policy debates.Our international partnerships extend IPPR’s inuenceand reputation across the world.IPPR4th Floor14 Buckingham StreetLondon WC2N 6DF T: +44 (0)20 7470 6100E: email@example.comRegistered charity no. 800065 This paper was frst published in September 2012. © 2012 The contents and opinions expressed in this paper arethose o the author(s) only.