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Performance Analysis of Centrifugal Pump’s Impeller of Low Specific Speed for Various Designs and Validation of Result by CFD

Performance Analysis of Centrifugal Pump’s Impeller of Low Specific Speed for Various Designs and Validation of Result by CFD

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Published by IDES
The design of the pump is primarily dictated by the
discharge rate and head to be developed. Various parameters
affect the pump performance and energy consumption. The
design of centrifugal pump has reached the stage where
improvements can only be achieved through a detailed
understanding of the internal flow. The prediction of the flow
in such equipment is very complicated due to the rotation and
the curved three-dimensional shape of the impellers.
Furthermore, the flows in pump show unsteady behavior,
especially at off- design conditions, as a result of interaction
between impeller and pump casing. CFD analysis is very
useful for predicting pump performance at various mass-flow
rates. For designers, prediction of operating characteristics
curve is most important to evaluate the performance of pump.
The design of the pump is primarily dictated by the
discharge rate and head to be developed. Various parameters
affect the pump performance and energy consumption. The
design of centrifugal pump has reached the stage where
improvements can only be achieved through a detailed
understanding of the internal flow. The prediction of the flow
in such equipment is very complicated due to the rotation and
the curved three-dimensional shape of the impellers.
Furthermore, the flows in pump show unsteady behavior,
especially at off- design conditions, as a result of interaction
between impeller and pump casing. CFD analysis is very
useful for predicting pump performance at various mass-flow
rates. For designers, prediction of operating characteristics
curve is most important to evaluate the performance of pump.

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Published by: IDES on Sep 27, 2012
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Full Paper© 2012 AMAEDOI: 01.IJRTET.7.3.Int. J. on Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 3, July 2012
Performance Analysis of Centrifugal Pump’s Impellerof Low Specific Speed for Various Designs andValidation of Result by CFD
S N Sapali, Prof in Mech Engg Dept. College of Engg Pune-05
Rajiv Kaul , College of Military Engg, Pune-3(India)Email :- rajivkaulcme@yahoo.com
 Abstract
:
T
he design of the pump is primarily dictated by thedischarge rate and head to be developed. Various parametersaffect the pump performance and energy consumption. Thedesign of centrifugal pump has reached the stage whereimprovements can only be achieved through a detailedunderstanding of the internal flow. The prediction of the flowin such equipment is very complicated due to the rotation andthe curved three-dimensional shape of the impellers.Furthermore, the flows in pump show unsteady behavior,especially at off- design conditions, as a result of interactionbetween impeller and pump casing. CFD analysis is veryuseful for predicting pump performance at various mass-flowrates. For designers, prediction of operating characteristicscurve is most important to evaluate the performance of pump.
 Key words: -
Centrifugal pump, Impeller, CFD, blade angle,turbulence, triangles, solid modeling, Meshing
I. I
NTRODUCTION
Centrifugal pumps are probably among the most oftenused machinery in industrial facilities as well as in commonlife. After being invented they passed long evolutionary wayuntil they became accessible for various applications. Theirphysical principle is described centuries ago by Euler througha well known equation named after him called Euler’s equationfor turbo-machinery. Many technical applications of centrifugal pumps cannot be fulfilled without proper analysis,especially regarding pumps output parameters i.e. its headand efficiency. Pumps with specific speed lower than 500 areof no practical use,and pumps with specific speed lowerthan this value suffer reduced efficiency and are no longerpractical.Specific speed, N
s
= (discharge Q is in lit/s)N—speed of pump (rpm), H—Head developed by pump (m).The trend toward higher speed, high power density liquidturbo-machinery has inevitably increased the potential forfluid/structure interaction problems, and the severity of thoseproblems.The current investigation is aimed to simulate the complexinternal flow in a centrifugal pump impeller (semi-open) forlow specific speed (900-1250 rpm) with six twisted blades byusing a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation with a
standard k-ε (SST) turbulence model. Numerical simulations
can provide quite accurate information on the fluid behavior(1)in the machine for various designs (blades angle) and thushelp the engineer to obtain a thorough performance evaluationof a particular design.The Centrifugal Pumps impeller under consideration wasdesigned as a “radial” type, in which the flow noise orpulsation generally remains low. The inlet passage is entirelyperpendicular to the rotating axis to maximize the centrifugalforce and a semi-open construction (having only the back shroud) to facilitate fabrication and minimize disk friction.II. D
ESIGN
 
OF
I
MPELLERS
 
BLADES
The blade design serves to define the shape of the bladesalong the outer, inner and mean streamlines so that the inletand outlet angles could be obtained. The blade describes athree-dimensional curve along each surface of revolution.The length of the streamlines in circumferential direction isstill unknown; within the certain limits it can be freely selected.It has been observed in impeller type, the most seriousproblem for adopting a semi-open impeller is the control of the impeller-axial tip clearance.A.
Semi-open and open impellers
Impellers without a front shroud are termed as “semi-open”. The axial thrust is higher in semi-open than withclosed impellers, because the pressure in the vane-lessimpeller, sidewall gap always exceeds the pressure within thebladed impeller. A large clearance would invite leakage loss,while small clearance would run the risk of seizure by contact.The angles between two consecutive blades are different(72
0
in 5-blade pump, 60
0
in 6-blade pump and 51.43
0
in 7-blade pump), therefore the distances between the nearestblade before the tongue and tongue – denoted by parameterdare different in three pumps. Also it has been observed thatthis distance has a great influence on the flow field. 6-bladepump has a larger distance of blade with the tongue; thereforeflow separation has begun later than the other two cases.The unique behavior of the 6-blade pump is related to itslarge distance of blade with the tongue. Larger distance hasstronger backflow effects.5071
 
Full PaperInt. J. on Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 3, July 2012© 2012 AMAEDOI: 01.IJRTET.7.3.507 
Fig. 1: Graphical view of Impeller with blades (dimensions are in mm)T
ABLE
I:
 
D
ENOMINATION
 
OF
I
MPELLER
(
TYPE
A)
 
T
ABLE
II: D
ENOMINATION
 
OF
N
EW
I
MPELLER
(
TYPE
B)
2
 
Full Paper© 2012 AMAEDOI: 01.IJRTET.7.3.Int. J. on Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 3, July 2012507
 
Fig. 2: Impellers of various materials (Brass, CI, Copper)
III. CFD
AND
N
AVIER
-S
TOKES
(N-S) E
QUATIONS
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) complementsexperimental and theoretical fluid dynamics by providing anefficient means of simulating fluid flow of practical interest.Many tasks can numerically be solved much faster andcheaper than by means of experiments.
 N-S equation for Turbulent Flow:-
Navier-Stokes (N-S)equations describe the flow of viscous fluid most accurately.However, at higher Reynolds Number the flow growsturbulent as in the case of water pump. Study of turbulentflow is rather a difficult area, analytically as well ascomputationally. For more complex situation like pump,turbine etc, solution of the N-S equation must be found withthe help of computers. This is a field of science by its own,called Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).Turbulent Flow is characterized by random and rapidfluctuations swirling regions of fluid, called eddies, throughout the flow. These fluctuations provide an additionalmechanism for momentum and energy transfer. The swirlingeddies transport mass, momentum and energy to otherregions of flow much more rapidly than molecular diffusiongreatly enhancing mass, momentum and heat transfer. As aresult, turbulent flow is associated with much higher valuesof friction, heat transfer and mass transfer coefficients. Evenwhen the average flow is steady, the eddy motion in turbulentflow causes significant fluctuations in the values of velocity,temperature, pressure and even density.Some scientists conceived turbulent motion as a simplesuperposition of a fluctuating motion on a mean motion.Velocity vector component
= (u,v,w) at a point in aturbulent motion could be written as
uuu
,
vvv
,
www
,
 p p p
.Where
 pwvu
,,,
; denote mean and
 pwvu
,,,
denotefluctuating components. The magnitude of is usually justa few percent of , but the high frequencies of eddies makethem very effecti
 
ve fo the transport of momentum, thermalenergy and mass. The chaotic fluctuations of fluid particlesplay dominant role in pressure drop on these random motionsmust be considered in analyses with the average velocity.For viscous term, time averaged N-S equation for turbulentflow 
)()()(
2
vu yu yu xu x x pvv xuu
        
(2) 
)()()(
2
wv zv zv xv y y pww yvv
        
(3)
)()()(
2
wu xw xw xw z z puu zww
        
(4)Where p
= pressure of flowing fluid, ρ = density of fluid, µ =
viscosity of fluid. These equations are same as the one forlaminar flow except that the shear force terms have beenmodified due to the presence of turbulence of the flow. Theseadditional stresses are called apparent stresses. Since stressis a tensor of order 2, it has nine components3

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