—Different types of vehicle speed limiters are in currentuse for regulating traffic especially across roads near populatedareas such as hospitals, malls, and schools. Motivated by statisticsshowing high traffic death rates occurring near these areas, aproject aimed at implementing a wirelessly controlled speedlimiting system is presented here. The proposed system is basedon microcontroller technology for collecting data related to speedand transmitting it through a transceiver to a base station thatanalyzes the transmitted data and takes appropriate decisionsrelated to speed limit and control requirements. Thetransmitting/receiving base station is to be located strategically atthe entrance of populated areas where speed is to be maintained.Upon entry to these areas, the speed control is switched from thecar driver to the speed limiting system. A model of the actualsystem is designed and built. Although this model is based on anelectric car driven by a DC motor, it can be equally applied to athrottle valve controlled gasoline engine.
According to government estimates, India accounts for about10 percent of the total 1.2 million fatal accidents in the world.An average of 365 accidents a day and more than 100000fatalities a year. According to the ministry of shipping, roadtransport and highways, at least 129994 cases of roadaccidents were reported from the national highways in 2005,while the figure was 130265 in 2004. In 2003, a total of 127834 such cases were registered. All these fatal accidentsare speed related. There is overwhelming evidence that lower speeds result both in fewer collisions and in reduced severityof collisions. A used method for speed management is cruisecontrol. It is a system which allows the vehicle to maintain asteady speed without the driver using either the accelerator or the brakes. Cruise control systems are comprised of electronicand mechanical subsystems. The vehicle's speed sensor,mounted on the drive shaft of the transmission, sendselectrical pulses generated by a magnet to the computer thus,when the vehicle's speed increases, the frequency of the pulsesincreases. For any given speed of the vehicle there is acorresponding pulse frequency. It is this pulse frequencywhich the cruise control tries to maintain as a constant.
Disadvantages of Cruise control
It works very effectively to control the speed of the vehicle but when it fails, it can be difficult to diagnose and fix.Driving over "rolling" terrain, with gentle up and down portions, can usually be done more economically (using lessfuel) by a skilled driver viewing the approaching terrain, bymaintaining a relatively constant throttle position and allowingthe vehicle to accelerate on the downgrades and decelerate onupgrades, while reducing power when cresting a rise andadding a bit before an upgrade is reached. Cruise control willtend to over throttle on the upgrades and retard on thedowngrades, wasting the energy storage capabilities availablefrom the inertia of the vehicle.The inefficiencies from cruise control can be overcome byusing
.This paper presents a new method by which vehicle speed iscontrolled externally rather than internally. The speedmeasurement and control is accomplished via two PICmicrocontrollers with the signals being transmitted andreceived wirelessly by two transceivers. The master microcontroller is connected to a PC station in which fuzzylogic control software using Lab View is implemented toreceive speed data from a shaft encoder implemented on avehicle and then make appropriate decisions for controllingthe speed to keep it below a certain limit. The motor speedcontrol is carried out by controlling a PWM signal from theslave microcontroller installed on the vehicle.If the vehicle enters a speed-controlled zone, the control isshifted from the user to the speed limiting system that takescare of the PWM signal which controls the car speed to keep itin the desired range. All this process is activated when thevehicle passes through a certain populated area such as aschool or a shopping area.II. B
The first transceiver is installed near the base station whilethe other is implemented on the vehicle itself thus establishinga wireless link between the user interface near the computer and the microcontroller- H bridge-encoder system on thevehicle as shown in figure 1 below.
Figure 1: The overall system communication and control diagram
Fuzzy based Wireless Speed Limiter