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Fuzzy Based Wireless Speed Limiter - Copy (1)

Fuzzy Based Wireless Speed Limiter - Copy (1)

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Published by Anbalagan Murugesan

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Anbalagan Murugesan on Sep 27, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/13/2014

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 Abstract 
 —Different types of vehicle speed limiters are in currentuse for regulating traffic especially across roads near populatedareas such as hospitals, malls, and schools. Motivated by statisticsshowing high traffic death rates occurring near these areas, aproject aimed at implementing a wirelessly controlled speedlimiting system is presented here. The proposed system is basedon microcontroller technology for collecting data related to speedand transmitting it through a transceiver to a base station thatanalyzes the transmitted data and takes appropriate decisionsrelated to speed limit and control requirements. Thetransmitting/receiving base station is to be located strategically atthe entrance of populated areas where speed is to be maintained.Upon entry to these areas, the speed control is switched from thecar driver to the speed limiting system. A model of the actualsystem is designed and built. Although this model is based on anelectric car driven by a DC motor, it can be equally applied to athrottle valve controlled gasoline engine.
I.I
 NTRODUCTION
According to government estimates, India accounts for about10 percent of the total 1.2 million fatal accidents in the world.An average of 365 accidents a day and more than 100000fatalities a year. According to the ministry of shipping, roadtransport and highways, at least 129994 cases of roadaccidents were reported from the national highways in 2005,while the figure was 130265 in 2004. In 2003, a total of 127834 such cases were registered. All these fatal accidentsare speed related. There is overwhelming evidence that lower speeds result both in fewer collisions and in reduced severityof collisions. A used method for speed management is cruisecontrol. It is a system which allows the vehicle to maintain asteady speed without the driver using either the accelerator or the brakes. Cruise control systems are comprised of electronicand mechanical subsystems. The vehicle's speed sensor,mounted on the drive shaft of the transmission, sendselectrical pulses generated by a magnet to the computer thus,when the vehicle's speed increases, the frequency of the pulsesincreases. For any given speed of the vehicle there is acorresponding pulse frequency. It is this pulse frequencywhich the cruise control tries to maintain as a constant.
 Disadvantages of Cruise control 
It works very effectively to control the speed of the vehicle but when it fails, it can be difficult to diagnose and fix.Driving over "rolling" terrain, with gentle up and down portions, can usually be done more economically (using lessfuel) by a skilled driver viewing the approaching terrain, bymaintaining a relatively constant throttle position and allowingthe vehicle to accelerate on the downgrades and decelerate onupgrades, while reducing power when cresting a rise andadding a bit before an upgrade is reached. Cruise control willtend to over throttle on the upgrades and retard on thedowngrades, wasting the energy storage capabilities availablefrom the inertia of the vehicle.The inefficiencies from cruise control can be overcome byusing
Wireless speed
 
limiter system
.This paper presents a new method by which vehicle speed iscontrolled externally rather than internally. The speedmeasurement and control is accomplished via two PICmicrocontrollers with the signals being transmitted andreceived wirelessly by two transceivers. The master microcontroller is connected to a PC station in which fuzzylogic control software using Lab View is implemented toreceive speed data from a shaft encoder implemented on avehicle and then make appropriate decisions for controllingthe speed to keep it below a certain limit. The motor speedcontrol is carried out by controlling a PWM signal from theslave microcontroller installed on the vehicle.If the vehicle enters a speed-controlled zone, the control isshifted from the user to the speed limiting system that takescare of the PWM signal which controls the car speed to keep itin the desired range. All this process is activated when thevehicle passes through a certain populated area such as aschool or a shopping area.II. B
LOCK 
D
IAGRAM
The first transceiver is installed near the base station whilethe other is implemented on the vehicle itself thus establishinga wireless link between the user interface near the computer and the microcontroller- H bridge-encoder system on thevehicle as shown in figure 1 below.
Figure 1: The overall system communication and control diagram
Fuzzy based Wireless Speed Limiter 
<your details>
1
 
III.S
YSTEM
 
COMPONENTS
The proposed system is composed of a number of integratedsubsystems namely: PWM motor controller, Fuzzy logiccontrol, wireless serial communication and speedmeasurement. A brief description of each subsystem follows.
 A.PWM motor controller 
The PIC microcontroller is capable of generating a pulse-width-modulated signal of specific duty cycle (see figure 3)controlled by programming several registers of the MCU. ThisPWM signal generates a varying output DC voltage to drivethe DC motor through an H-bridge which transforms thePWM signal into an output voltage proportional to the dutycycle of the PWM signal.
Figure 2: Pin diagram of PIC microcontroller Figure 3: The pattern of the PWM signal
V
out =
Duty Cycle (in %)*supply voltage
Where
Duty Cycle= (
a/a+b)*100
The importance of the H-bridge circuit lies in the fact that itcan drive the motor forward or backward at any speed throughthe use of an independent power source which provides thecircuit with increased protection and isolation. In this paper, itis decided to use a common H bridge that can handle up to 2 Aof current and about 40 V of supply voltage for driving themotors. In addition, it can drive up to 2 DC or stepper motorsat the same time. Figure 4 below shows a schematic of theL298.
Figure 4: Schematic of the L298
Fig 5 shows a bidirectional DC motor control Schematicdiagram for which only one bridge is needed. The external bridge of diodes D1 to D4 is made by four fast recoveryelements (trr = 200 nsec) that must be chosen of a VF as lowas possible at the worst case of the load current. The senseoutput voltage can be used to control the current amplitude bychopping the inputs, or to provide over current protection byswitching low the enable input. The brake function (Fastmotor stop) requires that the absolute maximum rating of 2Amps must never be overcome.
Figure 5: Bidirectional DC motor control
 B.Speed Measuremen
A rotary encoder is used to transform the mechanicalrotational movement of the vehicle shaft into an electricalsignal in the form of pulses and thus detect rotations of therotating shaft. The shaft has brushes perpendicular to the axis.The number of brushes determines the resolution of therotation. The used encoder generates 1024 pulses perevolution which indicates high resolution. As each brush passes the pickup sensor, the output voltage level reverses(from high to low) to indicate that a brush has passed. Thenumber of output voltage changes, over a given period of time, gives angular velocity.
Angular velocity= (no of voltage changes)/ (1024*time of measurement)
The encoder is from the E40S series manufactured by
 
Autonics and is shown in figure 6 below.
Figure 6: The shaft encoder used for measuring speed
This encoder is characterized by the following features:First, it is easily installed at narrow space. Second, it hassmall inertia moment. Third, it has wide range of power source: 15~24VDC ±5% and finally it is characterized byvarious output types. The output of the encoder is driven toone of the pins of the PIC through which a hardware interruptis generated to count the number of changing edges (rising or falling) for a given period of time (90 ms in this case) tocalculate the speed of the vehicle . The speed measurement isthen processed to the speed control algorithm for proper action.
C.Wireless Serial Communication
One of the major tasks in this paper was to establish areliable wireless serial link between the vehicle and the basestation. The communication protocol used to establish the link is the Asynchronous Serial Protocol which is considered oneof the most reliable protocols in serial telecommunications. Inthis protocol, logic 1 represents the idle state (marking state)of the communication channel, while logic 0 represents thenon-idle state (spacing state) as shown in figure 7 below. Thestart bit of the sent data is the synchronization bit thatindicates the transition from the idle state. The stop bit on theother hand, indicates that desired data is transferred whichswitches returns the link to the idle state
Figure 7: The idle and non-idle states of the UART Protocol
The transceiver chips used to establish the wireless link arethe AUREL XTR 434 which operates at 100 kbps and 433.92MHz The time between each two consecutive level transitionson the line of the serial signal must be comprised between10µs and 200µs for correct operation. A double layer boardfor each transceiver is implemented as shown in figure 8taking into consideration two important elements: proper  positioning of the whip antenna which must be connected to a50 ohm line surrounded by ground and proper 12V power supply regulator since the device is very sensitive to voltagevariations. The receiver antenna must get the transmittedsignal from the transceiver antenna across the channel. Whenthe wireless transceiver at the transmitter side is nottransmitting, the transceiver at the receiving side will catchnoise in the air by the receiver antenna and demodulate thesignal as shown in figure 9.
Figure 8: Schematic of the XTR 434 transceiver and its double layer board
The noise signal observed is around few MHz and the PICmicrocontroller must be able to distinguish between valid dataand noise from air in order to receive the desired data.
Figure 9: The signal pattern at the receiver side before and after datatransmission
IV. F
UZZY
L
OGIC
C
ONTROL
Fuzzy logic is a new promising technology used to find3

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