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Samenvatting Infectie en Inflammatie

Samenvatting Infectie en Inflammatie

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01/19/2013

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Samenvatting Infectie en Inflammatie- Mims
Ch.4 the Fungi
Fungi;- > 70 000 species, 300 are identified as pathogens in humans. Some arecosmopolitan, other are found mainly in tropical regions.- Systemic forms cause more serious problems as medical advances have takenplace, e.g. immunosuppressive and antibiotic therapies;- Fungal pathogens can be classified on the basis of their growth forms or thetype of infection they cause.- They may exist as branched filamentous forms or yeasts.
 
Filamentous formsYeast-like forms
The mass of hyphae forms a “mycelium”.Single cellAsexual reproduction results in theformation of sporangia, liberate thespores by which fungus is dispersed.Reproduces by division. Budding mayalso occur , with the “bud” remainingattached, forming pseudo hyphaeCommon cause of infection afterinhalationCandida is an important exception inthe dimorphic group, showing thereverse and forming hyphae within thebody
Candida
- Superficial mycoses; skin, hair, nails; Spread person-to-person contact oranimal-to-human contact.- Subcutaneous mycoses: nails and deeper layers of the skin are involved; viathe skin.- Systemic or deep mycoses: internal organs; often result from opportunisticgrowth of fungi in individuals with impaired immune competence and areprimarily acquired via the respiratory tract.Filamentous forms grow extracellular, but yeasts can survive and multiply withinmacrophages and neutrophils. Neutrophils can play a major role in controllingthe establishment of invading fungi. Too large for phagocytosis -> Killed byextracellular factor released by phagocytes.Fungal membrane is rich in ergosterol. Compounds that selectively bind toergosterol can therefore be used as effective fungal agents. Fungi have a thickchitin-containing cell wall, and grow as filaments (hyphae) or single-celledyeasts.
 
Ch.5 the protozoa.
 Protozoa:- Single-celled animals.- Some can infect humans opportunistically. They continue to multiply in theirhost until controlled by its immune response or by treatment.- May cause disease directly (e.g. rupture of RBC), but more often the pathologyis caused by the host’s response.Infect body tissues and organs as:- Intracellular parasites, RBC, macrophages; Obtain nutrients from the host cellby direct uptake or by ingestion of cytoplasm.- Extracellular parasites in the blood, intestine or genitourinary system; feed bydirect nutrient uptake or by ingestion of host cells;Protozoa reproduction is usually asexual, by binary or multiple division of growing stagesProtozoa have evolved many sophisticated strategies to avoid host responses.Extracellular species evade immune recognition of their plasma membrane. Theinterface is the parasite’s plasma membrane, and examples of strategies toavoid immune recognition of this surface e.g. undergo repeated antigenicvariation of surface antigens.Infections routes:- By ingestion, contaminated food or water with transmission stages such ascysts;- Insect vectors;- mother in utero.
Ch. 6. Helminths and arthropods.
 Groups of parasitic worms. Three main groups : 1.) tapeworms (cestoda), 2.)the flukes (Trematoda or Digenea) and 3.) the roundworms (nematoda). Firsttwo belonging to the Platyhelminths or flatworms, the third include in a separatephylum. Platyhelminths have flattened bodies with muscular suckers and/orhooks for attachment Nematodes have long cylindrical bodies and generally lackspecialized attachment organs. Sources of food are blood and tissue fluid.Transmission occurs in four distinct ways:

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