The major increase in the crop yield occurred between 1960 and 1980. This general increase incrop yields, which occurred in our country during the period between 1960 and 1980, is referredto as the Golden Era or the Green Revolution. The Green Revolution marked on turning point inthe Indian agriculture. As a result of the Green Revolution, we have become self-sufficient infood. We have also been able to maintain a buffer stock of food grains which can be used in thetimes of natural calamities such as drought and floods when the crop production is low.
History of the Green Revolution in India
Now let us try to understand the various steps, which led to the Green Revolution. Prior to 1960,farmers in the country used to cultivate desi or traditional varieties of wheat and rice. Thesevarieties had very low yield per hectare. In the period of 1950 and 1960, in order to increase thefood production, the various agricultural inputs such as seeds, irrigation facilities, fertilizers andpesticides were systematically improved.However, the improvement in the various agricultural inputs did not result in the correspondingincrease in the food production. The traditional varieties of crops showed only a slight increasein yield in spite of the availability of water and fertilizers in the sufficient quantities. In otherwords, the desi varieties of crops did not respond well to the improved agricultural inputs such aswater and fertilizers. As a result, we are not able to fulfill the requirements of our expandingpopulation.
In the 1960’s a great event occurred which
revolutionized the agricultural production in ourcountry. In this period, a team of agricultural scientists led by Dr. Norman E. Borlaug introducedsuccessfully some new yield varieties of wheat in Mexico. These high yielding varieties of wheatknown as Mexican varieties were introduced in our country, on experimental basis, in a fewselected districts. Since the yield of these varieties was very high as compared to the traditionalverities, more and more area was brought under cultivation of these Mexican varieties.Later on, our scientists developed new high yielding varieties were better suited to our climateand soil conditions, and hence yielded a record production of wheat. This marked beginning of the Green Revolution. Thus, introduction of the improved high yielding varieties of wheat wasthe major factor, which led to the Green Revolution.The high yielding varieties need better inputs such as water, fertilizers, frequent weeding andcontinuous use of pesticides. Therefore, in order to get the best outputs from these high yieldingvarieties all these inputs were considerably improved.
Factors Leading to Green Revolution
Now let us summarize the various factors, which led to the Green Revolution or increase in thecrop production:1. Introduction of high yielding Mexican varieties, and the other varieties developed bycrossbreeding desi varieties with the Mexican varieties.2. Increase in use of fertilizers.