Chemistry of Benzene
You need to know AS organic chemistry especially the termselectrophile, carbocation, substitution, addition, the bonding andstructure of alkenes and the IUPAC naming system.After working through this Factsheet with reference to benzene yourknowledge should include:(i)the Kekulé and delocalised models and evidence for and againstthem,(ii)examples of electrophilic substitution reactions, the reactionmechanisms and the importance of these reactions in synthesis,(iii)examples of addition reactions.
Benzene is the simplest member of a class of hydrocarbons called
. Benzene was first isolated in 1825by Michael Faraday and its molecular formula C
was determinedin1834. The chemists of this period knew that hydrogen atoms andcarbon atoms could join to 1 and 4 other atoms respectively and thussuggested structural formulae such as CH
.The electron was not discovered until 1897 and the word
wasintroduced by Robert Mulliken in 1932.
2. The Kekulé Structure of Benzene (1865)
Kekulé suggested that the structure of benzene was a regular hexagonof carbon atoms with alternating single and double bonds, eachcarbon being bonded to a hydrogen atom – structure A. Later hemodified this model and considered benzene as a mixture of twocyclohexa-1,3,5-trienes in rapid equilibrium – structures B.
The Kekulé model proved to be
on many levels, butespecially, it could not explain the unreactive nature of benzenecompared to the high reactivity of C=C bonds in alkenes. Alkenestypically undergo electrophilic
reactions under mild reactionconditions whereas benzene tends to react by electrophilic
under severe conditions including the need for catalysts.
3. The Delocalised Structure of Benzene
Delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule that are notassociated with any particular atom or to any particular covalentbond. These electrons are contained within an orbital that extendsover several adjacent atoms.In benzene, each carbon atom uses three outer electrons to formthree sigma (single covalent) bonds, one to a hydrogen atom andtwo to two carbon atoms so that a flat regular hexagon of carbonatoms is formed each with a hydrogen atom pointing away fromthe ring. This leaves six p-orbitals (see diagram C), one per carbonatom, which are able to overlap all around the ring to form pi (
)orbitals above and below the carbon plane (see diagram D). Thesepi orbitals contain six delocalised electrons; this delocalisation isresponsible for benzene’s stability and decreased reactivity.The delocalised model (commonly represented as shown indiagram E) means that the electron density between carbon atomsin the ring is equal, hence all C-C bond lengths are equal and allbond angles are 120
. The experimental technique of X-raydiffraction confirms this with all C-C bond lengths being 0.139 nmwhich is intermediate between a C-C single (0.154 nm) and C=Cdouble (0.134 nm). The IR spectrum only shows one peak due toC-H stretch (3100-3000 cm
) so all C-H bonds are identical. Thereis also one peak due to C-C stretch (
) since all C-Cbonds are identical.
4. Thermochemical evidence that the delocalisedstructure is more stable than the Kekulé structure.
= -120 kJ mole
= -240 kJ mole
shows that the heat of hydrogenation of cyclohexene(F) to form cyclohexane (G) is -120 kJ mol
and that of cyclohexa-1,3-diene (H) to also form cyclohexane (G) is -240 kJ mol
benzene had the Kekulé structure, the heat of hydrogenationshould be (3
-120) = -360 kJ mol
.Benzene does react with hydrogen under vigorous conditionsresulting in
loss of delocalisation
, e.g. 150
C in the presence of anickel catalyst.However, the ACTUAL experimental value for benzene is only– 208 kJmol
= -208 kJ mole
Thus benzene is, as a result of delocalisation, 152 kJmol
(360 – 208)
than the Kekulé structure. This energy iscalled the