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Vittore Pisani-mater Europa11111

Vittore Pisani-mater Europa11111

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Published by Lilia Ilieva
A brief description of Old Slavonic (Old Bulgarian)
A brief description of Old Slavonic (Old Bulgarian)

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Published by: Lilia Ilieva on Sep 28, 2012
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Библиотека
Mater Europa. II
Редакционна колегия
 
Лилия Илиева
 
Маргарет Димитрова
 
Елена Тачева
 
Петко Петков
 
Борислав Попов
 
Лъчезар Перчеклийски
 
Главен редактор на издането: Маргарет Димитрова
 
Преводачи: Милена Левунлиева, Янко Димитров
 Vittore PisaniOld Bulgarian Language
Старобългарски език
 Antico Bulgaro(
Свидетелство и документ
.
Цитирано по:
Vittore Pisani.
Crestomazia indeuropea. Testiscelti con introduzioni grammaticali, dicionario comparativo e glossary
. Secondo edizioneaccresciuta. Torino. Rosenberg & Selier, 1947.)
На корицата е представен български глаголически печатен шрифт
 
от Х
VIII
век, публикуван от Пиер
-
Симон Фурние
-
младши
 
Издателство
 Буквица
2012ISBN
 
 
Preface
Since the time of 
Pavol Jozef Šafárik (German:
Paul Joseph Schaffarik)
1
, a Slavonicstudies pioneer, it have been well known, that the sacred language of old Slavic books was thelanguage of the Bulgarian Slavs who inhabited the region near Thessaloniki. They spoke adialect, very similar to the other South-Eastern Bulgarian dialects and lexically presentingsome lexical influence of the language of eteo-Bulgarians (Proto-Bulgarians, Bulgars)
 – 
amilitary union of tribes dominated by an ethnic group speaking a Turkic language of 
-r 
and
 – 
l
 type .The early Bulgarian medieval literature flourished during the tenth century
 – 
it was the
so called “Golden Age of Bulgarian Culture”
when Bulgarian men of letters composed andtranslated from Greek liturgical, biblical, and exegetical texts, polemical and scientifictreatises, and even poetry in standardized (literary) Old Bulgarian. Amongst the well knownauthors are John the Exarch, St Clement of Ohrid, Constantine of Preslav, Chernorizec Hrabr
 
(literally: ‟brave monk‟)
, and some others. Tsar Symeon himself is thought to havecompilated two anthologies of texts on religion, ethics, natural philosophy, logic, etc. One of them, the so-
called First Symeon‟s Sbornik is
now known
also as Svyatoslav‟s Sbornik 
because its earliest copy that survives was made in 1073 for Kiev duke Svyatoslav.As a language of well-developed and relatively ancient standard form (since the ninthcentury), Old Bulgarian is one of the classical languages of comparative Indo-Europeanlinguistics.As Old Bulgarian have been the Sacred language of the Orthodox Church and thewritten language of South and East Slavs (and of Romanians as well) during many centuries,the terms Old Church Slavonic (or Church Slavonic), and Serbian Church Slavonic, RussianChurch Slavonic, etc., prevail in the works of researchers, whose own language is one of theother Slavonic languages.But the term
Old Bulgarian
which is more appropriate and more adequate waspreferred in the West before the Second World War and some years after the war it was stillin use.
1
 
Paul Joseph Schaffarik (1795
 – 
1861), Slovak by nation, was philologist and one of the firstresearcher of Slavonic languages.
 
 
 
German Comparative Grammar
As it is well known, German linguistics and the comparative studies occupied theleading position in the field of language investigations during the nineteenth century. OldBulgarian was introduced into the main stream of the world linguistics by the famous andworld-known August Schleicher (1821
 – 
1868).In 1852 Schleicher published a book on the morphology of Church Slavonic
2
. As canbe seen fron its title:
 Die
 
Formenlehre
 
der Kirchenslawischen
 
Sprache
, in this work Schleicher was still using the term Church Slavonic (Kirchenslawisch), but he presented thearguments of 
Pavol Jozef Šafárik 
which were in favor of Bulgarian character of the language.As Franz von Miklosich
3
, the other great philologist, tried to motivate the theory of Slovenelanguage as the fundament of Slavonic written language, August Schleicher pointed, betweenthe other arguments, the Bulgarian
št (< *tj) and žd
(<*dj) as
common features of “Church
Slavo
nic” and the New Bulgarian dialects (p. 28).
Later August Schleicher published his main work 
 – 
 
Compendium of the Comparativegrammar of the Indo-European Languages
4
”,
first edited in 1861/1862, and in 1866 a newrevised edition appeared in the same publisher house. Unfortunately, only the second editionis at our disposal.
In his famous “
Compendium
” Schleicher 
made a distinction between
Old Bulgarian
 (Altbulgarisch) and
Church Slavonic
(Kirchenslawisch), as, according to his explanation:
Church Slavonic may be called the younger form of this language, modified under theinfluence of other Slavonic languages, particularly
 – 
of Russian
5
(p.6, footnote 2).But the object of the comparative study of August Schleicher is the Old Bulgarian
 – 
 
„Altbulgarische Sprache‟, as the a
uthor thoroughly designated this classical form of the oldestSlavonic language. As a synonym of the preferred term Old Bulgarian the author pointed outthe term
 Alt Kirchenslawisch
and in German linguistics until the present day the term
 Alt  Bulgarisch
is the main term, sometimes followed be the term
 Alt Kirchenslawisch
, given inbrackets.After
the Schleicher‟s very influential studies, the term
Old Bulgarian
became thepreferred term in the German linguistics and I would allow myself to point out some examples.In 1910 the well-known
“Young grammarian” (
Junggrammatiker) August Leskien(1840
 – 
1916) published in Heidelberg
 Handbuch der altbulgarischen (altkirchenslavischen)
 
Sprache
and in 1962 it already had its eighth reprint
6
.
2
 
 Die
 
Formenlehre
 
der Kirchenslawischen
 
Sprache
.
 Erklärend und vergleichend dargestellt.
Bonn
:
Verlag
 
von H.B.König
 ,
1852.
3
 
Franz von Miklosich or Franjo Miklošič (1813 – 
1891), Slovenian philologist.
4
 
Compendium der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen.
(
Kurzer Abriss der indogermanischen Ursprache, des Altindischen, Altiranischen, Altgriechischen, Altitalischen, Altkeltischen, Altslawischen, Litauischen und Altdeutschen.
) (2 vols.) Weimar, H. Boehlau (1861/62)
5
 
Kirchenslawisch nennt man die jüngere, durch Einfluss anderer slawischer Sprachen, vor allem desrussischen, veränderte Form diser Sprache.
 
6
A. Leskien, Handbuch der altbulgarischen (altkirchenslavischen) Sprache, 6. Aufl., Heidelberg 1962

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