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Peter a. Wilderer Treatise on Water Science Vol IV Water-Quality Engineering 2011

Peter a. Wilderer Treatise on Water Science Vol IV Water-Quality Engineering 2011

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Preface – Water-Quality Engineering
K Hanaki,
University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
&
2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 Water technology has been ever growing. It is an essential set of technologies for sustainable human society. Traditionaltechnology, or better called just skill, to obtain, purify, andsupply water was developed in the ancient era in various re-gions of the world. Great efforts have been made to obtain safeand adequate water as an essential resource to human life.However, still, billions of people in the world have no accessto safe water. Moreover, large numbers of people have nochance to use a proper sanitation system, and this eventually deteriorates water quality and decreases the available safe water resources. Water resources are renewable theoretically. Used water does not disappear but is renewed to freshwater throughevaporation by the power of solar energy. Solar energy is anatural distillation system to remove impurities present in water. However, the help of water technology is needed tomaintain this renewing function in the modern world in which human activity overwhelms the natural purifying function.Conventional water technology was used as a black box through which water was purified without knowing themechanisms, which control the physical, chemical, and bio-logical reactions used in purification. However, such empiricaluse of technology cannot further improve or develop thetechnology. Many researchers and practitioners have de- veloped theory-based technology, rather than mere empiricalskill, for purifying water. The function of each unit process wasstudied and the mechanisms of separation, role of micro-organisms, and process characteristics were clarified. A sig-nificant amount of knowledge has been accumulated. Thisknowledge improves process performance and reliability.Human beings also developed tools to examine the micro- or nanoscale reaction. Modern technology needs to be based ona deep and broad understanding of theory. Water technology is not isolated from other technologies.Many innovations to upgrade water-technology performancehave been tried by applying new technologies from other fields. Membrane technology that originated in a field such asmedical science or chemical engineering is an example.Nowadays, water treatment is one of the largest applicationareas of membrane technology. The purpose of water technology has been expanded frompurification of water to water generation, energy and resourcerecovery. This is a practical and important area to which new technology can be applied. Water availability is limiting human settlements. The supply of water produced fromseawater or even moisture can break through this limitation. The requirements for water technology differ very muchfrom one place to the other. The key factors are target com-pounds to be removed, resource and energy consideration,capacity of operating human resources, as well as economicresources. For example, a safe water-supply system in least-developed areas needs technology, which can be used without frequent and sophisticated maintenance. However, suchtechnology does not mean cheap and old technology. Newly developed innovative technology has a higher chance of im-plementation than old technology. Water management needs policy and system technology rather than simple connection of unit technologies. A dis-tributed wastewater treatment system needs reliable and eco-nomically and technologically reasonable treatmentechnologies. A nutrient removal policy for eutrophication canbe realized by introducing a technologically reasonable com-bination of secondary and advanced treatments. The water technology is a system technology.Resource and energy limitation has become a key factor for sustainability. Substantial amount of material use threatensthe world’s resources, and energy use provokes the climatechange problem. Saving resource and energy is now an in-dispensable aspect of water technology. The necessity of en-ergy and resource saving further changes water technology. The current global situation regarding climate change andresource limitation enhances the recovery of resource andenergy. Wastewater contains organic matter, which is biomass;therefore, obtaining carbon-neutral energy is possible. Water technology is now forming an important part of business worldwide. Every country needs safe water and en- vironmental protection from wastewater. Technology devel-opment, implementation, and maintenance providesubstantial opportunities for business. This volume includes theory, practice, and recent devel-opment of these wide range of water technologies, althoughall such innovative technologies cannot be included. There isno single answer to any of the particular cases. Among many options, one should choose a technology system considering the local social, economic, and engineering aspects. This vol-ume would help such a technology choice.
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4.01Water and Wastewater Management Technologies in the Ancient Greekand Roman Civilizations
G De Feo,
University of Salerno, Fisciano (SA), Italy
LW Mays,
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
AN Angelakis,
Institute of Iraklion, Iraklion, Crete, Greece
&
2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
4.01.1 Aqueducts
4
4.01.2 Minoan and Greek Aqueducts
4
4.01.3 Roman Aqueducts
5
4.01.4 Cisterns and Reservoirs
8
4.01.5 Water Distribution Systems
11
4.01.6 Fountains
14
4.01.7 Drainage and Sewerage Systems and Toilets
15
4.01.8 Discussion and Conclusions
19
References
21
Prolegomena
The past is the key for the future‘Hydor (Water) is the beginning of everything’ 
 Thales from Miletus (
. 636–546BC).
Humans have spent most of their existence as hunting andfood-gathering beings. Only in the last 
c.
9000–10000 years,they discovered how to grow agricultural crops and tameanimals. Such revolution probably first took place in the hillsto the north of Mesopotamia. From there the agriculturalrevolution spread to the Nile and Indus Valleys. During thisagricultural revolution, permanent villages replaced a wan-dering existence. About 6000–7000 years ago, farming villagesof the Near East and Middle East became cities.Hydraulic technology began during antiquity long beforethe great works of such investigators such as Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) and Isaac Newton (1642–1727), and evenlong before Archimedes (287–212BC) (Mays, 2008). During the Neolithic age (
c.
5700–3200BC), the first successful effortsto control the water flow were driven (such as dams and ir-rigation systems) due to the food needs and were imple-mented in Mesopotamia and Egypt (Mays
., 2007). Urban water-supply and sanitation systems are dated at a later stage,in the Bronze Age (
. 3200–1100BC).Regarding the technological principles related to water and wastewater, today it is well documented that many are not achievements of present day, but date back to 3000–4000 yearsago. These achievements include both water and wastewater constructions (such as dams, wells, cisterns, aqueducts, sewer-age and drainage systems, toilets, and even recreationalstructures). These hydraulic works also reflect advanced sci-entific knowledge, which allowed the construction of tunnelsfrom two openings and the transportation of water both by gravity flow in open channels and by pressurized flow inclosed conduits. Certainly, technological developments weredriven by the necessities to make efficient use of naturalresources, to make civilizations more resistant to destruc-tive natural elements, and to improve the standards of life. With respect to the latter, the Greek (including Minoan) andRoman civilizations developed an advanced, comfortable, andhygienic lifestyle, as manifested from public and privatebathrooms and flushing toilets, which can only be comparedto the modern one, re-established in Europe and North America in the beginning of the last century.Minoan technological developments in water and waste- water management principles and practices are not as wellknown as other achievements of the Minoan civilization, suchas poetry, philosophy, sciences, politics, and visual arts.However, archaeological and other evidence indicate that,during the Bronze Age in Crete, advanced water management and sanitary techniques were practiced in several palaces andsettlements. This period was called by the excavator of thepalace at Knossos, Sir Arthur Evans, as Minoan after thelegendary King Minos. Thus, Crete became the cradle of one of the most important civilizations of mankind and the firsmajor civilization in Europe.One of the major achievements of the Minoans was theadvanced water and wastewater management techniques prac-ticed in Crete during that time. The advanced water distributionand sewerage systems in various Minoan palaces and settle-ments are remarkable. These techniques include the con-struction and use of aqueducts, cisterns, wells, and fountains,the water-supply systems, the construction and use of bath-rooms and other sanitary and purgatory facilities, as well as wastewater and stormwater sewerage systems. The hydraulic andarchitectural function of the water-supply and sewer systems inpalaces and cities are regarded as one of the salient character-isticsoftheMinoancivilization.These systems were soadvancedthat they can be compared with the modern systems, which were established only in the second half of the nineteenthcenturyin Europeanand Americancities ( Angelakis
2010). Water and wastewater technologies developed during theMinoan, Greek, and Roman civilizations are considered in thischapter. Emphasis is given to the water resources development such as aqueducts, cisterns, wells, distribution systems, was-tewater and stormwater sewerage systems construction, oper-ation, and management beginning since Minoan times(second millennium BC). The achievements to support the
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hygienic and the functional requirements of palaces and citiesduring this time were so advanced that could be paralleledonly to modern urban water systems that were developed inEurope and North America only in the second half of thenineteenth century ( Angelakis and Spyridakis, 1996).It should be noted that hydraulic technologies developedduring the Greek and Roman periods are not limited to urban water and wastewater systems. The progress in urban water supply was even more admirable, as witnessed by severalaqueducts, cisterns, wells, and other water facilities discovered(Koutsoyiannis
., 2008). These advanced Minoan tech-nologies were expanded to the Greek mainland in later peri-ods of the Greek civilization, that is, in Mycenaean, Archaic,Classical, Hellenistic, and Roman periods. In this chapter, arather synoptic description of the main concepts of water and wastewater management during the Minoan, Greek, andRoman civilization is attempted. The main principles andchallenges are also discussed.
4.01.1 Aqueducts
 Aqueducts were used to transport water from a source to thelocations where the water was needed, either for irrigation or for urban water supplies, and have been used since the Bronze Age. Aqueduct bridges are man-made conduits for transport-ing water across rivers, streams, and valleys. As a matter of fact,a systematic evolution of water management in ancient Greecebegan in Crete during the early Bronze Age, that is, the Early Minoan period (
c.
3500–2150BC) (Myers
., 1992;Mays,2007). Starting the Early Minoan period II (
c.
2990–2300BC),a variety of technologies such as wells, cisterns, and aqueducts were used (Mays, 2007).
4.01.2 Minoan and Greek Aqueducts
 The water distribution system at Knossos, as well as themountainous terrain and available springs made possiblethe existence of an aqueduct (Mays, 2007;Mays
., 2007). The Minoan inhabitants of Knossos depended partially on wells, and mostly on water provided by the Kairatos River tothe east of the low hill of the palace, and on springs. Indi-cations suggest that the water-supply system of the Knossospalace initially relied on the spring of Mavrokolybos (called soby Evans), a limestone spring located 450m southwest of thepalace ( Angelakis
.,2007). In later periods with the increase of population, other springs at further longer distances were utilized. Thus, anaqueduct made of terracotta pipe could have crossed a bridgeon a small stream south of the palace which carried water from a perennial spring on the Gypsadhes hill (Graham,1987;Mays, 2007).  A second example of an aqueduct was found in Tylissos(see
). Parts of the stone aqueduct, with the mainconduit at the entrance of the complex of houses, andother secondary systems led the water to a cistern dated at 
c.
1425–1390 BC (Mays
., 2007). Other aqueducts were inGournia, Malia, and Mochlos. These technologies were further developed during the Hellenistic and Roman periods in Crete,and were transferred to continental Greece as well as other Mediterranean locations ( Angelakis
., 2007;Angelakis andSpyridakis, 2010).In the Archaic and the Classical periods of the Greek civil-ization, aqueducts were built similar to the ones built by theMinoans and Mycenaeans. One of the most renowned water-supply systems is the tunnel of Eupalinos on Samos Island. Infact, it is the first deep tunnel in history that was dug from twoopenings with the two lines of construction meeting at about the central point of the distance. The construction of this tunnel was made possible by the progress in geometry and geodesthat was necessary to implement two independent lines of construction that would meet (Koutsoyiannis
., 2007). The Samos aqueduct system includes the 1036-m-long tunnel and two additional parts for a total length greater than 2800 m. Its construction started in 530BC, during thetyranny of Polycrates and lasted 10 years. It was in operationuntil the fifth century AD (Koutsoyiannis
Figure 1
Ancient Minoan and Greek aqueducts: (a) aqueduct entering Tylissos showing the stone cover and (b) Peisistratean aqueduct consisting ofterracotta pipe segments and elliptical pipe openings in each pipe. Copyright permission with LW Mays.
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Water and Wastewater Management Technologies in the Ancient Greek and Roman Civilizations