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Number Systems

# Number Systems

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04/16/2013

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Introduction

Numbers form an integral part of our lives. In this lesson we will learn about the different types of numbersand the different categories under which they fall. The concepts discussed in this lecture will be your first steptowards a general understanding of the mathematics requirements to clear MBA entrance exams. As weproceed with this lecture, you will realise that you have already learnt many of the concepts, included in thislesson, in school. This would further help build confidence in you. Although Number theory is important in thecontext of all the MBA entrance exams, it gains all the more importance for the students aiming for success inthe CAT,
Understanding Numbers
A measurement carried out, of any quantity, leads to a meaningful value called the
Number
. This value maybe positive or negative depending on the direction of the measurement and can be represented on thenumber line.
Natural Numbers (N)
The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5…are known as natural numbers. The set of natural numbers is denoted by N.Hence, N = {1, 2, 3, 4…}. The natural numbers are further divided as even, odd, prime etc.
Whole Numbers (W)
All natural numbers together with ‘0’ are collectively called whole numbers. The set of whole numbers isdenoted by W, and W =
{
0, 1, 2, 3, ……
}

Integers (Z)
The set including all whole numbers and their negatives is called a set of integers. It is denoted by Z, and Z =
{
–
, … – 3, – 2, – 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, …….
∞}
. They are further classified into Negative integers, Neutral integersand positive integers.
Negative integers (Z
–
)

All integers lesser than Zero are called negative integers.

=

{
– 1, – 2, – 3…–

}

Neutral integers (Z
0
)
Zero is the only integer which is neither negative nor positive and it is called a neutral integer.
Positive integers (Z
+
)
All integers greater than Zero are called positive integers.
+

=

{
1, 2, 3, ……..,

}

Classification of Numbers

i. Even Numbers:
All numbers divisible by 2 are called even numbers. E.g., 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 …Even numbers can beexpressed in the form 2n, where n is an integer. Thus 0, – 2,
6, etc. are also even numbers.
Number Systems
Part I: Introduction
CATsyllabus.com

ii. Odd Numbers:
All numbers not divisible by 2 are called odd numbers. e.g. 1, 3, 5, 7,9…Odd numbers can be expressed in the form (2n + 1) where n is anyinteger. Thus – 1,
3,
9 etc. are all odd numbers.
iii. Prime Numbers:
A natural number that has no other factors besides itself and unity is aprime number.
Examples:
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 …
A prime number greater than 3, when divided by 6 leaves either 1 or 5 asthe remainder. Hence, a prime number can be expressed in the form of 6K
±
1. But the converse of this observation is not true, that a number leaving aremainder of 1 or 5 when divided by 6 is not necessarily a prime number. For eg: 25, 35 etc
Ex.1
If a, a + 2, a + 4 are consecutive prime numbers. Then how many solutions ‘a’ can have?
(1) one (2) two (3) three (4) more than three
Sol.
No even value of ‘a’ satisfies this. So ‘a’ should be odd. But out of three consecutive odd numbers,atleast one number is a multiple of 3.So, only possibility is a = 3 and the numbers are 3, 5, 7.
A composite number has other factors besides itselfand unity. e.g. 8, 72, 39, etc. On the basis of this fact that a number withmore than two factors is a composite we have only 34 composite from 1 to50 and 40 composite from 51 to 100.
v.

Perfect Numbers:

A number is said to be a perfect number if the sum of ALL its factors excluding itself(but including 1) is equal to the number itself.
Or
The sum of all the possible factors of the number is equal to twice the number.
Example:
6 is a perfect number because the factors of 6, i.e., 1, 2 and 3 add up to the number 6 itself.Also213161
++
=6321
++
=66= 1(Unity)Other examples of perfect numbers are 28, 496, 8128, etc. There are 27 perfect numbers discoveredso far.
vi. Co-Prime numbers:
Two numbers are (prime or composite) said to be co-prime to one another, ifthey do not have any common factor other than 1. e.g. 35 & 12, since theyboth don’t have a common factor among them other than 1.
FUNDA:
If the factors of any perfect number other than 1 are written and reciprocal of them areadded together then result is always unity.
TIP

If a number has noprime factor equal toor less than its squareroot, then the numberis a prime number.

Must Know
1 to 25
9 prime1 t0 50
15 prime1 to 100
25 prime1 to 200
45 prime
TIP

1 is neither a primenumber nor acomposite number

TIP

The HCF of co-prime numbers isalways 1

vii. Fractions
A fraction denotes part or parts of a unit. Several types are:1.
Common Fraction:
Fractions whose denominator is not 10 or a multiple of it. e.g.32,1817etc.2.
Decimal Fraction:
Fractions whose denominator is 10 or a multiple of 10.3.
Proper Fraction:
In this the numerator < denominator e.g.102,76,98etc. Hence its value < 1.

4.
Improper Fraction:
In these the numerator > denominator e.g.210,67,78etc. Hence its value > 1.5.
Mixed Fractions:
When a improper fraction is written as a whole number and proper fraction it is calledmixed fraction. e.g.37can be written as 2 +31=312
Rational Numbers
Rational Number is defined as the ratio of two integers i.e. a number that can be represented by a fraction ofthe formqpwhere p and q are integers and q
0.They also can be defined as the non-terminating recurringdecimal numbers. Such as 3.3333…., 16.123123….. are all rational numbers as they can be expressed in theformqp.
Examples:
Finite decimal numbers, whole numbers, integers, fractions i.e.53,916, 0.666…
,32, 7, 0 etc.
Irrational Numbers
Any number which can not be represented in the formqpwhere p and q are integers and q
0 is an irrationalnumber
.
On the basis of non-terminating decimals, irrational numbers are non-terminating non recurringdecimals. Such as 3.4324546345……. is a non-terminating, non-repeating number.
Examples:

π
,
5,
7, e
Non–Terminating Decimal Numbers
When we divide any number by other number, either we get a terminating number or a non – terminatingnumber. A non – terminating number on the basis of occurrence of digits after decimal can classified asfollowing.
1. Pure Recurring Decimals:

A decimal in which all the figures after the decimal point repeat, is called a
pure recurring decimal
.
Examples:
0
.
.
6, 06.are examples of pure recurring decimals. (0.
.
6 = 0.6 = 0.666 ……….)
2. Mixed Recurring Decimals:
A decimal in which some figures do not repeat and some of them arerepeated is called a
mixed recurring decimal
.

Examples:
0.23, 0.3527 ((0.23 = 0.23333….., 0.3527 = 0.35272727………)

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