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P. 1
Basic Concepts

Basic Concepts

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Published by Sidhartha Shankar

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Published by: Sidhartha Shankar on Sep 29, 2012
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05/13/2014

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1.
 
The
Atomic Number
(also known as the
Proton Number
) is the number of protonsfound in thenucleus of anatomand therefore identical to thecharge numberof the nucleus. It is conventionally represented by the symbol
 Z 
. The atomic number uniquely identifies achemical element.In an atom of neutral charge,the atomic number is also equal to the number of electrons.  2.
 
The
Mass Number
(
A
), also called
Nucleon Number
, is the total number of protonsandneutrons (together known asnucleons)in anatomic nucleus.  3.
 
The
Atomic Mass
is the total mass of protons,neutronsandelectronsin a singleatom.  The
Relative Atomic Mass
is defined as the relative average mass of its atom as compared to the 1/12
th
 mass of Carbon (C
12
isotope).
AtomicnumberName of elementSym AMAtomicnumberName of elementSym AM
1Hydrogen
H
124Chromium
Cr
522Helium
He
425Manganese
Mn
553Lithium
Li
726Iron
Fe
564Beryllium
Be
928Nickel
Ni
595Boron
B
1127Cobalt
Co
596Carbon
C
1229Copper
Cu
647Nitrogen
N
1430Zinc
Zn
658Oxygen
O
1631Gallium
Ga
709Fluorine
F
1932Germanium
Ge
7310Neon
Ne
2033Arsenic
As
7511Sodium
Na
2334Selenium
Se
7912Magnesium
Mg
2435Bromine
Br
8013Aluminum
Al
2736Krypton
Kr
8414Silicon
Si
2850Tin
Sn
11915Phosphorus
P
3151Antimony
Sb
12216Sulfur
S
3253Iodine
I
12717Chlorine
Cl
3554Xenon
Xe
13119Potassium
K
3955Cesium
Cs
13318Argon
Ar
4078Platinum
Pt
19520Calcium
Ca
4079Gold
Au
19721Scandium
Sc
4580Mercury
Hg
20122Titanium
Ti
4882Lead
Pb
20723Vanadium
V
5183Bismuth
Bi
209
4.
 
The unit of measurement of atomic mass is a.m.u (atomic mass unit)
1 amu = 1.66056 x 10
-24
g
5.
 
Equivalent Mass
is defined as the mass of an element/compound/ion which combines or displaces 1part of hydrogen or 8 parts of oxygen or 35.5 parts of chlorine by mass.
 
 
 6.
 
STP
273 K, 1 atmNTP
293 K, 1 atmStandard Room temperature7.
 
The
Valency
of an element is the measure of electrons it needs or needs to lose to obtain a stablestructure (a noble gas structure, such as helium, neon, argon ...)
 
At.No.Element Valency At. No. Element Valency At. No. Element Valency
1 Hydrogen (-1), +1 38 Strontium 22 Helium 0 39 Yttrium 33 Lithium 1 40 Zirconium(+2), (+3),+473 Tantalum(+3), (+4),+54 Beryllium 2 41 Niobium(+2), +3,(+4), +574 Tungsten(+2), (+3),(+4), (+5),+65 Boron -3, +3 42 Molybdenum(+2), +3,(+4), (+5),+675 Rhenium(-1), (+1),+2, (+3), +4,(+5), +6, +76 Carbon (+2), +4 43 Technetium 6 76 Osmium(+2), +3, +4,+6, +87 Nitrogen-3, -2, -1,(+1), +2,+3, +4, +544 Ruthenium(+2), +3, +4,(+6), (+7),+877 Iridium(+1), (+2),+3, +4, +68 Oxygen -2 45 Rhodium(+2), (+3),+4, (+6)78 Platinum(+1), +2,(+3), +4, +69 Fluorine -1, (+1) 46 Palladium +2, +4, (+6) 79 Gold +1, (+2), +310 Neon 0 47 Silver+1, (+2),(+3)80 Mercury +1, +211 Sodium 1 48 Cadmium (+1), +2 81 Thallium +1, (+2), +312 Magnesium 2 49 Indium(+1), (+2),+382 Lead +2, +413 Aluminum 3 50 Tin +2, +4 83 Bismuth(-3), (+2),+3, (+4),(+5)
 
14 Silicon -4, (+2), +4 51 Antimony-3, +3, (+4),+584 Polonium(-2), +2, +4,(+6)15 Phosphorus-3, +1, +3,+552 Tellurium-2, (+2), +4,+685 Astatine ?16 Sulfur-2, +2, +4,+653 Iodine-1, +1, (+3),(+4), +5, +786 Radon 017 Chlorine-1, +1, (+2),+3, (+4),+5, +754 Xenon 0 87 Francium ?18 Argon 0 55 Cesium 1 88 Radium 219 Potassium 1 56 Barium 2 89 Actinium 320 Calcium 2 57 Lanthanum 3 90 Thorium 421 Scandium 3 58 Cerium +3, +4 91 Protactinium 522 Titanium +2, +3, +4 59 Praseodymium 3 92 Uranium(+2), +3, +4,(+5), +623 Vanadium+2, +3, +4,+560 Neodymium +3, +424 Chromium +2, +3, +6 61 Promethium 325 Manganese+2, (+3),+4, (+6), +762 Samarium (+2), +326 Iron+2, +3,(+4), (+6)63 Europium (+2), +327 Cobalt +2, +3, (+4) 64 Gadolinium 328 Nickel(+1), +2,(+3), (+4)65 Terbium +3, +429 Copper +1, +2, (+3) 66 Dysprosium 330 Zinc 2 67 Holmium 331 Gallium (+2). +3 68 Erbium 332 Germanium -4, +2, +4 69 Thulium (+2), +333 Arsenic-3, (+2), +3,+570 Ytterbium (+2), +334 Selenium-2, (+2), +4,+671 Lutetium 335 Bromine-1, +1, (+3),(+4), +572 Hafnium 436 Krypton 037 Rubidium 1
Valency
can also be defined as the no. of e- lost or gained by an element/group in order to get the nearestinert gas configuration. As we see from the table given above there are many elements that have differentvalency. So the equivalent mass of an element will vary from compound to compound depending upon theirvalency.Ex :
FeO & Fe
2
O
3
 
Valency of Fe in FeO
2
Valency of Fe in FeO
3
 So, Eq. Wt. of Fe in 56÷
2
=
28
So, Eq. Wt. of Fe in 56÷
3
=
18.67
According to IUPAC : lower value of valency uses
 –
ous
suffix, and higher value of valency uses
 –
ic
suffix.So
FeO
Ferrous OxideFe
2
O
3
 
Ferric Oxide
 8.
 
A
Radical
is an atom, molecule, or ion, that is likely to take part in chemical reactions.There are three types of radicals : +ve
Cations (Li
+
, Ca
+2
)-ve
Anions ( Cl
-
. SO
42-
)Neutral Radicals (methyl radical)

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