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chap13

chap13

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13
Basic Magnetics Theory
Magnetics are an integral part of every switching converter. Often, the design of the magnetic devicescannot be isolated from the converter design. The power electronics engineer must not only model anddesign the converter, but must model and design the magnetics as well. Modeling and design of magnet-ics for switching converters is the topic of Part III of this book.In this chapter, basic magnetics theory is reviewed, including magnetic circuits, inductor model-ing, and transformer modeling [1-5]. Loss mechanisms in magnetic devices are described. Winding eddycurrents and the proximity effect, a significant loss mechanism in high-current high-frequency windings,are explained in detail [6-11]. Inductor design is introduced in Chapter 14, and transformer design is cov-ered in Chapter 15.
REVIEW OF BASIC MAGNETICS
The basic magnetic quantities are illustrated in Fig. 13.1. Also illustrated are the analogous, and perhapsmore familiar, electrical quantities. The
magnetomotive force
or scalar potential, between two pointsand is given by the integral of the magnetic field
along a path connecting the points:where is a vector length element pointing in the direction of the path. The dot product yields the com-
13.1.1
Basic Relationships
13.1
 
492
 Basic Magnetics Theory
ponent of 
 H 
in the direction of the path. If the magnetic field is of uniform strength
passing through anelementoflengthasillustrated,thenEq.(13.1)reducestoThisisanalogoustotheelectricfieldofuniformstrength
 E,
whichinducesavoltagebetweentwopointsseparatedbydistanceFigur
e
13.1 also illustrates a total magnetic flux passing through a surface
having areaThe total flux is equal to the integral of the normal component of the flux density
B
over the surfacewhere
 dA
is a vector area element having direction normal to the surface. For a uniform flux density of magnitude
 B
asillustrated,theintegralreducestoFlux density
 B
is analogous to the electrical current density
 ,
and flux is analogous to the electric cur-rent
 I 
. If a uniform current density of magnitude
passes through a surface of area then the total cur-rentis
Faraday’slaw
relates the voltage induced in a winding to the total flux passing through the inte-rior of the winding. Figure 13.2 illustrates flux passing through the interior of a loop of wire. Theloop encloses cross-sectional areaAccording to Faraday’s law, the flux induces a voltage
v
(
) in thewire,givenby
where the polarities of 
v
(
) and
aredefinedaccordingtotheright-handrule,asinFig.13.2.Fora
 
13.1 Review of Basic Magnetics
49
3
uniformflux distribution, we can express
v
(
) in terms of the flux density
 B
(
)by substitution of Eq.
(13.4):
Thus, the voltage induced in a winding is related to the flux and flux density
B
passing through theinteriorofthewinding.
 Lenz’s law
states that the voltage
v
(
) induced by the changing flux in Fig. 13.2 is of thepolarity that tends to drive a current through the loop to counteract the flux change. For example, con-sider the shorted loop of Fig. 13.3. The changing flux passing through the interior of the loopinduces a voltage
v
(
) around the loop. This voltage, divided by the impedance of the loop conductor,
leads to a current
i
(
) as illustrated. The current
i
(
) induces a flux which tends to oppose the
changesinLenzslawisinvoked laterinthischapter, toprovideaqualitativeunderstandingofeddycurrentphenomena.
 Ampere’s law
relatesthecurrentinawindingtothemagnetomotiveforceandmagnetic field
 H 
.
ThenetMMFaroundaclosedpathoflengthisequaltothetotalcurrentpassingthroughtheinte-rior of the path. For example, Fig. 13.4 illustrates a magnetic core, in which a wire carrying current
i
(
)passesthroughthewindowinthecenterofthecore.Letusconsidertheclosedpathillustrated,whichfollowsthemagneticfieldlinesaroundtheinteriorofthecore.Ampere’slawstatesthatThetotalcurrentpassingthroughtheinteriorofthepathisequaltothetotalcurrentpassingthroughthe

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