Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Imperialism, Colonialism and Cartography

Imperialism, Colonialism and Cartography

Ratings: (0)|Views: 86 |Likes:
Published by Érika Melek

More info:

Categories:Types, Reviews, Book
Published by: Érika Melek on Sep 30, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/29/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Imperialism, Colonialism and CartographyAuthor(s): Jeffrey C. StoneSource:
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers,
New Series, Vol. 13, No. 1 (1988),pp. 57-64Published by:
on behalf of
Stable URL:
Accessed: 01/02/2011 11:47
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at
.
http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unlessyou have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and youmay use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at
.
.
Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printedpage of such transmission.JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.
 Blackwell Publishing
and
The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers)
arecollaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to
Transactions of the Institute of BritishGeographers.
http://www.jstor.org
 
57
Imperialism,
colonialism
and
cartography
JEFFREYC. STONE
SeniorLecturer,epartmentfGeography,UniversityfAberdeen,AberdeenAB9 2UFRevisedMS receivedMarch,1987
ABSTRACTThecentenaryof theBerlin conferenceof1884-85was anopportunityfor historians to reiterate the view thatthe
conferencewasnot convenedopartitionAfrica. t follows from heimperialunction f the conferencehatsubsequentcolonialismwasashort-livedberrationn fourcenturiesf acontinuingmperial elationshipetweenEuropendAfrica.
Theestablishedattributeswhichdifferentiateimperialismfrom colonialismprovidea framework forunderstandingthecartographicevolutionof Africa. Thelong-standingview ofaneighteenthcenturycartographicreformationof Africaischallenged.Pre-colonialcartographyofAfricas,instead,characterizedbymethodologicalcontinuity,which is stillevidentin thecartographyof the nineteenthcenturyEuropean explorers,whereas themajordiscontinuitycoincides with thebeginningsof colonialrule. Thecartographic requirementsfor theimplementationofcolonialrule on thegroundaredifferentfromthose whichfostera moreremoteimperial relationship.Theattributes ofimperial cartographyarenow
reassertinghemselvesnthepost-colonial eriod.KEYWORDS:Africa,Reinterpretationfevidence,Cartography,mperialism,olonialism,xplorationErroneousinterpretationsofhistoricaleventstend topersist, despitethe best efforts of historians torectifymatters. Inlookingattheoriginsof colonialisminAfrica,cartographichistorians as wellashistoricalandpoliticalgeographersseem unaware of theinterpretationwhichdiplomatichistorians nowplaceonafamous nineteenthcenturymeeting.The conse-quenceforcartographichistoriographyis that asignificant changein the characteristic ontent oftheevolvingcartographyof Africa has beenoverlooked,whilstthenature andoriginsofanearlierphaseofchangehas been misunderstood. If'Europeanpre-eminenceincartographyandmap-making'deter-mined what constitutesAfrica,regardlessof culturalhistory(Mazrui,1986,p. 101),then the continent'scartographichistoryisnomundane oresotericsubject.Themeetinginquestionis thefourteen-powerBerlin conferenceonAfricaof1884-85,whose cen-tenarywasrecentlymarkedbyatleast six academicconferences. Fiercecontroversywasarousedbytheannouncement ofsome of theseevents,which wereerroneouslyseen ascelebratingtheanniversaryof thelaunchingof colonialpartition (Hargreaves,1984),buthistorians ofAfricahavelongbeen atpainstoemphasizethat theBerlinConference did not markthebeginningsofpartition(Crowder,1968;Fage,1969;Hargreaves,1974).TheBerlin Conference wasconvenedbecause collaborativearrangementsonwhichEuropeantateshadhitherto reliedwerebegin-ningto breakdown(Hargreaves,1985a).Continuedcommercialaccess toAfricawas the commonobjec-tive,notcontrol of itsterritory.What hasbeendescribed as 'the oldsystemof free tradeimperialisminWest Africa'was threatened(Hargreaves,1985b,p.21).Admittedly,the conferenceprovedineffectiveinconstrainingthechampionsofpartition.The Berlinprovisionsprovedinadequate,as thedevicesoftreatyandprotectoratewereperforceutilized toobtain controlinland,buttherecognitionof theBerlinconference as ameetingofimperialistsnotcolonialists and theidentificationof thedifferingattri-butes ofimperialismand colonialism hassignificancefor ourunderstandingof thecartographicevolutionofAfrica,whichrequiresreappraisal.The term'imperialism'hascome to mean thecontrol ofthe weakbytherich andpowerful,notnecessarily bymeans oftheexercise ofdirectauth-ority.It is anappropriatetermfor thelong-standingrelationshipbetweenEuropeandAfricawhichtheBerlinConferencewas convenedtodefend,that isthetraditionalfree-tradingsystematthecoasts of the
Trans.nst.Br.Geogr.N.S. 13:57-64(1988)ISSN: 0020-2754PrintedinGreat Britain
 
continent. Thefreedom was forEuropeansocompetefortrade,notfor Africans to obstruct it(Hargreaves,1984)and theimperial relationshipwasessentiallyinternationalncharacter,beingbased onmutualityofinterestsamongEuropeanpowers.TheEuropeaninternationalimperialismwhich waspromotedinBerlinin1884 isequallyevidentinthefoundingoftheInternationalAfrican Associationatthe BrusselsGeographicalConferencen1876(Bridges,1980)andindeedit isarelationshipwhichcan betracedbackthroughat leastfourcenturies.Bycontrast,theperiodofdirectEuropeancolonialrule whichbegannever-thelessin the1890sandwhichisdifferentiatedbyparochialEuropeannationalismandexclusivity,canberegardedas an abnormalandbriefbut influentialinterludein theimperialrelationshipbetween AfricaandEurope.TherelativelyephemeralnatureofcolonialismbycontrastwithimperialismnAfricaisemphasizedbyprojectingforwardto thepost-colonialperiod,forexampletothe successivenegotiationsof the Lome ConventionsbetweentheEEC and thelargelyAfricanACPstates.OnlytinyresidualsofEuropeancolonialism remainin Africabuttheverylongstandingimperial relationshipisarguablyevolving. European mperialismnAfricaischaracterizedbycollaborative internationalismandhistoricalcontinuity,whereascolonialismwasarelativelybrief assertionofcompetitiveEuropeannationalism. The differencehasgreatsignificanceinunderstandingthecartographicevolution ofAfrica.Pre-colonialcartographyof theinteriorof Africahaslongbeen seen asdividinginto twodistinctphases,whichare of debatablevalidityand whichobscuretherealityofthe forcesoperative.Theearlierphaseis characterizedbyits use ofPtolemaicconcep-tions,particularlyfor the source of theNile,and isepitomizedbytheeight-sheet mapof Africaof 1564byGastaldiwhosesubsequentnfluence sapparentnthedepictionsofAfricabyOrtelius(1570),Speed(1627),Blaeu(1642)and others.Supposedly,theturningpointin thecartographyof Africa s locatedinthe'AgeofReason',n themapsof theFrenchschool,notablyDe L'Isle1700)andd'Anville
(1727)
(Tooley,1969).Ascientificapproachlead to the removalofmanylegendsandassumptionsbythe innovatorswhoachievedmarkedgainsinaccuracyand werefamousfor theirblankspaces(Lane-Poole,1950;Klemp,1968;Tooley,BrickerandCrone,1976;Wallis,1986)whichareallegedlyindicativeofascientificattitudeofmind. Butcontemporarywisdomaboutthe interiorofAfricawassetasidein favourofblankspacesasearlyas1666byVossius(Randles,1956),while the Ptolemaic tradition of Africawasitselfrepletewithblankspacesand the useoftheword'incognita'.Sixteenthand seventeenthcenturycartographyemployedsuchcontemporarysources aswereavail-ableandmadesignificant changesin thedepictionofAfrica(Ouwinga,1975)inthe samewaythatJamesMacQueen(1856)made substantialchangesto themapofCentralAfricanthe nineteenthcentury,albeitwith differentsubjectmatter andqualityofdata.Justas Almeida wascritical ofprevious depictionsofEthiopiaintheseventeenthcentury(Skelton, 1958),soeighteenthcenturycartographersreacted tothework of theirpredecessors,givennew sources tohand.There ismethodologicalcontinuitylinkingeighteenthcenturyandboth earlier and latercartographers.Thecriticalcircumstances ormethodologicalcon-tinuityin themappingof Africa over fourcenturiesbycartographersfromseveralEuropeancountrieswasmovement ofinformationaboutAfricawithinEurope.Certainly,commercialcompetitionmeantthatthenavigationalinformationof theDutch,forexample,remainedsecret(Ouwinga,1975).Nevertheless,orig-inalinformationaboutAfrica did disseminate withinEuropeunder the commercialmpetusofpublication.Perhapsthe moststriking example,whichchallengestheconceptionof theeighteenthcenturyFrenchschoolasinnovatoryin its criticalattitudesoritssources,andalso demonstratesthe mannerin whichinformation disseminatedfor commercialgain,is the1665PortugueseAtlas of AfricabyJoaoTeixeiraAlberaz II.The atlas wascommissionedbyaFrenchmanandtogetherwithotherPortuguesesourcematerial,itwasused totransformpreviousdepictionsof the ZambezibasinbyJaillot (1678)aFrenchman,byBerry(1680)anEnglishmanandbyCoronelli(1683)aVenetian,in theirmapsofAfrica,beforeinspiringDeL'Isleand d'Anville(Cortesaoand daMota,1960).In thepast,thecommercialandstrategicdivisions withinEuropehavebeen stressedinseekingtocomprehendtheevolvingearlycar-tographyofAfrica,but it isthefacilitywith whichPortugueseinformation disseminatedthroughoutEuropein the formof theprintedmapwhichisstriking.Thisisunderstandable,giventheessentiallycollaborativenatureofEuropeanmperialismowardsAfrica.Thepre-colonialcartographicdepictionofAfricarepresentsevolutionnot transformation.Theconceptofaneighteenthcenturyreformationderivesfrom
58JEFFREYC.STONE

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->