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Ethnogenesis of Métis, Cree & Chippewa-MT

Ethnogenesis of Métis, Cree & Chippewa-MT

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Published by Pamela Letterman

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Published by: Pamela Letterman on Oct 01, 2012
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ETHNOGENESIS OF THE METIS, CREE AND CHIPPEWAIN TWENTIETH CENTURY MONTANAByJ. Elizabeth SperryB.A., Anthropology, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, 2001B.A., Native American Studies, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, 2006ThesisPresented in partial fulfillment of the requirementsfor the degree of Master of Arts in AnthropologyThe University of MontanaMissoula, MontanaSpring 2007Approved by:Dr. David A. Strobel, DeanGraduate SchoolDr. Gregory R. Campbell, Chair AnthropologyDr. Richard Sattler AnthropologyDr. Richmond L. Clow Native American Studies
Sperry, J. Elizabeth, M.A., May 2007 AnthropologyEthnogenesis of Metis, Cree and Chippewa in Twentieth Century MontanaChairperson: Dr. Gregory R. CampbellThis thesis examines the history of Montana’s Metis, Cree and Chippewa people as“landless Indians” in a twentieth century context. Landlessness among the Metis, Creeand Chippewa became a defining aspect of their identity by the twentieth century thatdistinguished them from both Indian and white people in the state. This paper discussesthe historical processes by which the Metis, Cree and Chippewa became landless, andexamines the unique aspects of their social and economic lives as landless Indian people.This paper concludes with an examination of the ethnogenesis of Metis, Cree andChippewa, which was based upon patterns of merger between discrete multi-ethnicgroups.
A sincere thank-you to my committee, Dr. Greg Campbell, Dr. Richard Sattler, and Dr. RichClow, for questions, comments, and encouragement in support of this thesis. I also thank theGraduate School at the University of Montana for grant money that enabled me to acquiredocuments from the National Archives, and the staff at the K. Ross Toole Archives for enthusiastically providing assistance with my research.I want to thank my parents, Sam H. and Janet S. Sperry, whose patience, understanding, andencouragement surpass that of any two people I know. Also to my sister, Susan R. Sperry, for reminding me that anything is possible. To my Pappy, Merle L. Hoyt, who worked hardthroughout his life to ensure his granddaughter could go to school, and for my Grandmon, EdithM. Petrie Hoyt - Happy 98
Birthday!My thanks to “auntie” Linda Juneau, a dear friend and colleague who walked this road beside me providing laughter, stories, perspective, and a shoulder to lean on when I thought I could not walk any further. I also express my appreciation to Vernon Carroll, for his interest and knowledge, andsharing numerous publications and documents from an expansive personal library that broughtfresh perspective to me at a crucial time during this project.I am fortunate to have had the opportunity to learn from a few individuals who demanded qualityscholarship. These individuals have shaped my education, and contributed to my academic and personal growth throughout my studies. With the completion of this paper, I want to express mygratitude to historian Dave Walter, for inspiring the researcher in me and never letting me forgetto enjoy the journey. A final acknowledgement goes to Professor Rich Clow for his unwaveringmentorship, and for guiding me in the right direction, at the right time, and for the right reasons.

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