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Scrambling based on 2D-Compersed Wavelet Transform and permutation Matrix in Communications Systems

Scrambling based on 2D-Compersed Wavelet Transform and permutation Matrix in Communications Systems

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Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 15, Issue 2, August 2012 http://www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk
Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 15, Issue 2, August 2012 http://www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk

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Published by: Journal of Telecommunications on Oct 02, 2012
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JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 15, ISSUE 2, AUGUST 2012
41
Scrambling based on 2D-Compersed WaveletTransform and permutation Matrix inCommunications Systems
 
Laith Ali Abdul-Rahaim; Hussein A. Lafta
Abstract Since a Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) domain based speech scrambler retains a considerable residual intelligibilityin the scrambled speech; this paper proposes a new speech-scrambling technique using compression of the o/p of DWT matrix toremove the residual intelligibility from the scrambled speech. The proposed new technique, based on the combination of an appropriateQPSK mapping method and compression wavelet transform (DWTCS). The scramble speech will be without residual intelligibility bypermuting several frequency components of wavelet transform. Without residual intelligibility in the scrambled speech, the proposedQPSK system is secure from frequency domain attacks by eavesdroppers. In addition, the speech scrambler system needs only two2D-DWT operations instead of the four required by the 1D-(DWT)-based speech scrambler in system structure. Simulation results arealso presented to show the effectiveness of this proposed technique.
Index Terms
: DWT, DWTCS, Frequency selective fading channels, multiband, QPSK.
 
1
.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 
Now-a-days internet has become very popular means fortransferring data and establishing communication. As theuse of digital data has increased, issues like illegal copyingand distribution are coming up. To overcome from thisproblem digital watermarking techniques [1] [2] have beendeveloped. This technique is used either in images, videosor audio’s for providing copyright protection andauthentication. Scrambling secret information into an audiofile is more difficult as compared to that in an imagebecause human auditory system is more sensitive thanhuman visual system. Therefore audio watermarking is oneof the challenges for the researchers. Three requirements [3]which are necessary for any audio scrambling scheme are:inaudibility, robustness and data rate. Embedding isperformed in such a manner that there is no differencebetween original signal and speech scrambler signal, that is,the scrambling is inaudible. Therefore inaudibility is mostimportant for any speech scrambler scheme. Other tworequirements, that is, Robustness and data rate are alsoimportant but these two cannot be achieved at the sametime. Therefore we have tried to maintain all the threerequirements in our proposed method. Technicallyspeaking, digital scrambling of speech is always the bestapproach, in which the original speech signal x is firstdigitized into a sequence of bits, x (k) which are thenencrypted digitally into a different sequence of bits, y (k)before transmission. Digital transmission is always muchmore efficient than analog transmission, and it is mucheasier for digital scrambling techniques to achieve a veryhigh degree of security. Of course, this type of technique isstill not quite compatible with today’s technicalenvironment, i.e., most of the telephone systems are stillanalog instead of digital; most practical speech digitizersstill require a relatively high bit rate which cannot betransmitted via standard analog telephone channels; andlow bit-rate speech digitizers still imply relatively highcomplexity and poor quality. Furthermore, almost alltechniques of this type require accurate synchronizationbetween the transmitter and the receiver, i.e., exactly thesame block of bits has to be processed by the scramblingand decryption devices for signal recovery. Thesynchronization problem becomes the essential part of theimplementation of such techniques. This not onlytremendously worsens the complexity, but makes thetransmission much more sensitive to channel conditionsbecause slight synchronization error due to channelimpairment can completely break the transmission. There isanother type of speech scrambling technique calledscrambling. The original speech signal x is scrambleddirectly into a different signal y(t) in analog form beforetransmission. The scrambling is represented by thetransformation between x(t) and y(t) regardless ofdigitization. Since the scrambled signal is analog, withsimilar bandwidth and characteristics as the original speechsignal, this type of technique is more compatible withtoday’s technical environment, i.e., can be easily used withexisting analog telephone systems. [4].
2.
 
S
CRAMBLING
B
ASED
DWT
AND PERMUTATION
M
ATRIX
:
The basic idea of cryptology is hiding information [5], thepeople who has no authorization cannot know the trueinformation. Scrambling is to reverse the information withmathematical tools. The original information is calledplaintext; the information enciphered is called cipher text.The process which is from plaintext to cipher text is calledscrambling; the reverse process is called deciphering.Deciphering is under the control of deciphering key, andthe mathematical transformation that is used fordeciphering is called data scrambling algorithm.Cryptography evaluates the security of systems on thefollowing four attributes: authentication, confidentiality,integrity and availability [6, 7]. The term scrambling hasbeen, and still used to describe the scrambling process toprotect voice communication whether archived by digital oranalog means [8]. This process is carried out in frequencydomain, time-domain as well as two-dimensional(combination of both) [9]. However, transform-domain datascrambling and decryption has sought a significant role insecure communication systems. Among the transform-domain techniques, DCT and DWT have proved to be the
 
42
JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 15, ISSUE 2, AUGUST 2012
 
best for data scrambling [10].Because the data is stored inthe computer transmitted through network in the term ofcipher text, if the deciphering is leak out, the person whohas no authorization won’t know the true meaning, andthen the data can be secure. Meanwhile, anybody who hasno authorization can’t forge right cipher text, so the datacan’t be changed, then the data is surely safe [11]. That iswhy many real world cryptographic implementations use acompression program to reduce the size of the signal beforescrambling [12].Two-dimensional scrambling that combinesthe frequency-domain scrambling with the time-domainscrambling [13]. Besides, there are many other analoguedata scrambling methods in the transform domain, e.g., fastFourier transform, discrete cosine transform and wavelettransform, etc. [14]. Recently, some new data scramblingmethods including chaotic cryptosystem [15]. In this paperwe used hybrid structure of discrete wavelet transform andpermutation function matrix as permutation and inversediscrete wavelet transform in building of both Scramblingand decryption. The main aim is to investigate theeffectiveness of the proposed new speech scrambling basedon 2D-Wavelet transformation and its application inwireless communications systems [16, 17].The success of wavelets is mainly due to the goodperformance for piecewise smooth functions in onedimension. Unfortunately, such is not the case in twodimensions. In essence, wavelets are good at catching zero-dimensional or point singularities, but two-dimensionalpiecewise smooth signals resembling 2D-signals have one-dimensional singularities. That is, smooth regions areseparated by edges, and while edges are discontinuousacross, they are typically smooth curves. Intuitively,wavelets in two dimensions are obtained by a tensor-product of one dimensional wavelets and they are thusgood at isolating the discontinuity across an edge, but willnot see the smoothness along the edge. The properties ofthe new transform are demonstrated and studied in severalapplications. As an illustration, consider the 2D-signaldenoising problem where there exist other approaches thatexplore the geometrical regularity of edges, for example bychaining adjacent wavelet coefficients and thenthresholding them over those contours [18].The number of possible permutation of elements is N
.However, all of these permutations cannot be used becausesome of them do not provide enough security [4]. Let P be aset of permutation, and let P-1 be the set of inversepermutations corresponding to the permutation in P. Theset S has to satisfy the requirement that any permutation inP must not produce an intelligence Encrypted data. It isdifficult to evaluate the intelligibility of the Encrypted datasignal and the intelligibility of the encrypted data signal bya quantitative criterion because intelligibility issubstantially a subjective matter multiplied by aPermutation Matrix (PM) which can be simply generated. Itcan be seen that the permutation function Matrix is a squarematrix with a dimension of N*N points. The permutationfunction of this matrix will change as the frequency bin ofthe DWT changes.The permutation Matrix is describe as replace uppertriangle at lower triangle and left triangle right triangle ofthe matrix shown as the following :If the signal is multiplied by this PM at the transmitter sidethen it must be multiplied by the Inverse of permutationfunction Matrix (IPM) at the receiver side in order toretrieve it, or in other form:
 IPM  y y
received sidereceiver 
*
(1)Note that the last equation is a general equation, whichmeans it depends on the location of the received signal thatmust be processed, and the location depends on thetransmitter side, because at the receiver the inverseprocedure will be done to process the signal. The resizing isvery important for the purpose of mapping in the next twosections. Since the data must be converted to a suitable twodimensional matrix before the PM mapping and then itmust be reconverted to a one dimension after mapping toobtain the sub-carrier modulation as seen later. Figure (1)illustrates the main procedure of matrix resizing operationsfor both 1D vector to 2D matrix and 2D matrix to 1D vector[5].
3
.
 
S
CRAMBLING
QPSK
 
S
YSTEM
B
ASED
O
N
P
ERMUTATION
M
ATRIX AND
2D-DWTCS
 
In this section, the permutation function matrix and 2D-DWT and 2D-DWTCS which are presented in the previoussection are proposed here as a new Scrambling techniquefor the realization of QPSK transceivers. These transformwill be used throughout the following sections as a datamapper to obtain a constellated data symbols prior to thesub-carrier modulation. The modified Scrambling isproposed as a new Scrambling in the communicationsystems as shown in Figure (2). The basic building blocks inthe implementation of QPSK system after some importantmodification as it can be seen in the next section. In thismodel each MATLAB function was designed to simulate a
Figure (1) :Graphical illustration of matrix converter operations for both
1D
vector to
2D
matrix &
2D
matrix to
1D
vector.
 
JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 15, ISSUE 2, AUGUST 2012
43
specific part of obtaining the modified Scrambling of aframe-based input data after achieving the necessary frameresizing according to the algorithm given in the previoussection.The procedure that illustrates the realization steps is shownin Figure (3), a signal flow diagram that explains theproposed scrambling QPSK transmitter [7].After convertingthe input data streams from serial to parallel form toconstruct a one dimensional vector that contains the datasymbols to be transmitted,d = (d
1
d
2
……….. d
N2
)
T
(2)where,
2
is the specified frame length, and N should bepower of 2 numbers. Then convert the data packets whichare represented by the vector d from one-dimensionalvector to an N ×N two dimensional matrix D, according tothe matrix resize operation. Then take the proposedscrambling method to the matrix D to obtain the matrix R ofdimensions N×N. The first step is computing the modifiedScrambling using DWT or DWTCS as shown in figure (3).After this step 2D-DWT will be computed for the matrix,and the procedure of computing 2D-DWT is given in [16].The output matrix will be dimensions of N/2×N/2 forcompression DWT. Then computing permutation functionmatrix of N/2×N/2(LL) only then multiplying the inputmatrix by the permutation function matrix. Themodification made on data dimensions in the end ofcalculation the modified Scrambling matrix coefficients is Rr = (r
1
r
2
……….. r
N×N
)
T
(3)At the end of this step, the proposed scrambling is done andthe complex valued symbols are now ready to sendthrough.After Modified Scrambling based on 2D-DWT andpermutation matrix has been done, a pilot-carrier (trainingsequence) is generated which is a bipolar sequence{
1}.The receiver will be informed about this sequencepreviously. The training sequence will be inserted in aparallel with data. The two sequences {data+ training} takethe QPSK Tx for the vector, (r) with data rate quarter thedate rate that obtain in using DWT without compression.The o/p will be delivered to obtain the sub-channelmodulation [5].Finally, the two sequences (training plus data) will beconverted to one sequence, and P/S converts the signalfrom parallel form to a serial form (convert the vector(s) toserial data symbols): s
1
, s
2
,………………, s
(N×N)/4
 The transmitted signal (S) will be transferred through thechannel to the receiver. Each MATLAB function with thismodel was designed to perform a specific part of the system.Figure (3) represents the procedure for the receiver toretrieve the transmitted data. In the receiver side theprocedure is reversed as it can be noticed. Also one can takea close look to see how the data dimensions are changingsuitably throughout the blocks. When the signal received inthe receiver, S/P converts the received sequence to aparallel form; also the separation of the two sequences willbe done. The received signal will be input to the OFDMDemodulator (S). After that the values corresponding to thezeros pad are removed, therefore the signal at the output ofthis step represents {data+training}. The training sequencewill be used to estimate the channel frequency response asfollows:
 N SampleTrainingTransmitte SampleTrainingceived   H 
....,2,1, )()(Re)(
(4)The channel frequency response which is found in the laststep will be used to compensate the channel effects on thedata, and the estimated data can be found using thefollowing equation:
2/2/....,2,1, )(.Re*)()(.
1
 N  N dataceived  H data Estimate
estimate
(5)The output of channel compensator will be passed throughthe modified descrambling. The reversed procedure ofmodified Scramblings used in the transmitter as can benoticed in figure (4). After using permutation matrix, theo/p will feed to the IDWT matrix (LL) only and the otherquarter (LH,HL and HH) will be zero. The last step is theP/S which converts the parallel form of the signal to a serialform.
Figure (2) : Block 
Diagram
of The Proposed Speech Scrambling System
.

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