JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 15, ISSUE 2, AUGUST 2012
Scrambling based on 2D-Compersed WaveletTransform and permutation Matrix inCommunications Systems
Laith Ali Abdul-Rahaim; Hussein A. Lafta
Abstract Since a Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) domain based speech scrambler retains a considerable residual intelligibilityin the scrambled speech; this paper proposes a new speech-scrambling technique using compression of the o/p of DWT matrix toremove the residual intelligibility from the scrambled speech. The proposed new technique, based on the combination of an appropriateQPSK mapping method and compression wavelet transform (DWTCS). The scramble speech will be without residual intelligibility bypermuting several frequency components of wavelet transform. Without residual intelligibility in the scrambled speech, the proposedQPSK system is secure from frequency domain attacks by eavesdroppers. In addition, the speech scrambler system needs only two2D-DWT operations instead of the four required by the 1D-(DWT)-based speech scrambler in system structure. Simulation results arealso presented to show the effectiveness of this proposed technique.
: DWT, DWTCS, Frequency selective fading channels, multiband, QPSK.
Now-a-days internet has become very popular means fortransferring data and establishing communication. As theuse of digital data has increased, issues like illegal copyingand distribution are coming up. To overcome from thisproblem digital watermarking techniques   have beendeveloped. This technique is used either in images, videosor audio’s for providing copyright protection andauthentication. Scrambling secret information into an audiofile is more difficult as compared to that in an imagebecause human auditory system is more sensitive thanhuman visual system. Therefore audio watermarking is oneof the challenges for the researchers. Three requirements which are necessary for any audio scrambling scheme are:inaudibility, robustness and data rate. Embedding isperformed in such a manner that there is no differencebetween original signal and speech scrambler signal, that is,the scrambling is inaudible. Therefore inaudibility is mostimportant for any speech scrambler scheme. Other tworequirements, that is, Robustness and data rate are alsoimportant but these two cannot be achieved at the sametime. Therefore we have tried to maintain all the threerequirements in our proposed method. Technicallyspeaking, digital scrambling of speech is always the bestapproach, in which the original speech signal x is firstdigitized into a sequence of bits, x (k) which are thenencrypted digitally into a different sequence of bits, y (k)before transmission. Digital transmission is always muchmore efficient than analog transmission, and it is mucheasier for digital scrambling techniques to achieve a veryhigh degree of security. Of course, this type of technique isstill not quite compatible with today’s technicalenvironment, i.e., most of the telephone systems are stillanalog instead of digital; most practical speech digitizersstill require a relatively high bit rate which cannot betransmitted via standard analog telephone channels; andlow bit-rate speech digitizers still imply relatively highcomplexity and poor quality. Furthermore, almost alltechniques of this type require accurate synchronizationbetween the transmitter and the receiver, i.e., exactly thesame block of bits has to be processed by the scramblingand decryption devices for signal recovery. Thesynchronization problem becomes the essential part of theimplementation of such techniques. This not onlytremendously worsens the complexity, but makes thetransmission much more sensitive to channel conditionsbecause slight synchronization error due to channelimpairment can completely break the transmission. There isanother type of speech scrambling technique calledscrambling. The original speech signal x is scrambleddirectly into a different signal y(t) in analog form beforetransmission. The scrambling is represented by thetransformation between x(t) and y(t) regardless ofdigitization. Since the scrambled signal is analog, withsimilar bandwidth and characteristics as the original speechsignal, this type of technique is more compatible withtoday’s technical environment, i.e., can be easily used withexisting analog telephone systems. .
The basic idea of cryptology is hiding information , thepeople who has no authorization cannot know the trueinformation. Scrambling is to reverse the information withmathematical tools. The original information is calledplaintext; the information enciphered is called cipher text.The process which is from plaintext to cipher text is calledscrambling; the reverse process is called deciphering.Deciphering is under the control of deciphering key, andthe mathematical transformation that is used fordeciphering is called data scrambling algorithm.Cryptography evaluates the security of systems on thefollowing four attributes: authentication, confidentiality,integrity and availability [6, 7]. The term scrambling hasbeen, and still used to describe the scrambling process toprotect voice communication whether archived by digital oranalog means . This process is carried out in frequencydomain, time-domain as well as two-dimensional(combination of both) . However, transform-domain datascrambling and decryption has sought a significant role insecure communication systems. Among the transform-domain techniques, DCT and DWT have proved to be the