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Van Der Walt - Anarcho-Syndicalist Critique of COSATU's 'Strategic Unionism' - Zab 11, 2010

Van Der Walt - Anarcho-Syndicalist Critique of COSATU's 'Strategic Unionism' - Zab 11, 2010

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Published by redblackwritings
Examines state of South African labour movement/ unions. Argues that labour can play a key role in struggle for new, just, democratic social order but only by breaking with mainstream political parties, corporatism, capitalism and state.
Examines state of South African labour movement/ unions. Argues that labour can play a key role in struggle for new, just, democratic social order but only by breaking with mainstream political parties, corporatism, capitalism and state.

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Published by: redblackwritings on Oct 03, 2012
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11/30/2012

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South African unions, centred on the 2 million-strong Congressof South African Trade Unions (COSATU), have consistently artic-ulated a policy vision that breaks with crude neo-liberalism. Thisis remarkable – but is it enough? Just how viable and desirable isthis vision, particularly as the neo-liberal era lurches into a seriousslump? And is there an alternative? This question is posed particularly acutely by the hammer blowsof the global recession from 2007. Despite the rather predicablepretence that South Africa is unaffected (notably by TrevorManuel), the country is far from immune.2009 saw world economic growth fall to just over 1 percent,trade growth to just over 2 percent, with 50 million job lossesworldwide (2 million in SA) and 200 million plunged into the direstpoverty. In South Africa, manufacturing shrunk by 22,1 percent inthe first quarter of 2009, mining by 32,8 percent, and agricultureby 2,9. The previous year saw a 75 percent increase in businessfailures. From January to September 2009, a staggering 770,000 jobs were lost.
1
 This is, of course, the exactly opposite of the ZumaANC’s promise to quickly create a half-a-million jobs.
BACKGROUND
Unlike many other union movements around the world, labourin South Africa entered the 1990s with a clear vision of socialchange. This vision fell short of socialism – it centred on the notionof a “win-win” class compromise between workers and business but rejected a blind reliance upon market forces.However, as we shall see, the model makes major concessionsto neo-liberalism - and even where it doesn’t, it has enormousflaws – rather than create “building blocks” for a democratic so-cialism, as its supporters hope, it is set to derail the working classmovement. This vision was articulated in the Reconstruction and Develop-ment Programme (RDP), expressed again in the NEDLAC LabourCaucus’
Social Equity and Job Creation
proposal (1996), the “Sec-tor Job Summits” of the early 2000s, and most recently inCOSATU’s interventions at the presidential summits on the crisis.While COSATU is the key proponent of these policies, the othermajor federations – NACTU and FEDUSA especially – tend to followits lead.Labour’s approach is usually referred to as “strategic unionism”:unions will use a combination of mass action and participation inpolicy forums (most especially, the tripartite National EconomicDevelopment and Labour Council, NEDLAC) to push for this vision.In other countries, like Australia, this idea is often called the “pro-gressive competitive alternative”. COSATU sees NEDLAC andother corporatist structures, as well as the ANC, as “spaces” towin the implementation of this vision.
THE VISION
At the core of this vision are several key ideas, some of whichare contradictory:
j
First
, the vision argues for increased worker control of the econ-omy, both through giving workers at the shop floor a greater sayin production decisions, through getting unions represented oncompany boards, and through union participation in policy forumslike NEDLAC. Tied to this, worker empowerment will also entail amajor upgrade of skills.
j
Secondly
, it suggests that this “democratisation” will ensurethat responsible and financially sound decisions get made: essen-tially, the idea is that “business is too important to leave to man-agement”.
j
Thirdly
(leaving aside COSATU’s loudly declared commitmentto Marxism) is idea here is basically a social democratic one: cap-italism should be reformed to benefit all “stakeholders”; the prob-lem in South Africa is not capitalism as such, but an ineffectivecapitalism that is characterised by low levels of investment, mo-nopolies and price collusion, and bad government policy).
j
As this suggests,
fourthly
, the vision then moves onto propos-ing Keynesian measures (boost working class demand via grantsand public works in order to boost profits and therefore the com-panies) and economic nationalism (protect weak sectors from theglobal economy).
j
Finally
, the vision embraces the notion of a globally competi-tive industrial South Africa, which can compete in the open mar-ket. (The stress on export-led growth as an ultimate aim – alongwith the obsession with the evils of monopolies and price-fixing – indicates a key neo-liberal thrust that is at odds withthe calls for union participation in decisions, for Keynesian-ism and for protectionism).
HIGH ROAD, LOW ROAD
 The overall approach, then, is a bit confused. COSATU,which affirmed at its 2009 congress its commitment to“building Marxism” (and even learning from “anarchism”,see page 45 on “Black Flame”), nonetheless embraces a vi-sion of class-compromise brokered by the state to increaseprofitability while generating welfare. The experience of South African capitalism is, in other words, reduced to prob-
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lems that can be solved by policies – more competition, betterstate support, more union inputs – rather than problems inherentin a declining, crisis-ridden, uncompetitive, semi-industrial capi-talist economy. The problem, in short, is posed as “bad” capitalism, and the so-lution is a social-democratic outlook: reform capitalism so it worksfor all. The basic idea is that of a “high road” to competing in theglobal economy – a high wage, worker-friendly, pro-union, high-skill, democratic, road to competitiveness, based on a “win-win”(more profits and more wages) class compromise. This is con-trasted, implicitly, with the Chinese “low road”: the authoritarianunion-bashing, starvation-wage, sweatshop approach.
WRONG ROAD
Capitalism and the state are directly,demonstrably, responsible for the miser-able conditions of the black (and a sectorof the white) working class – as even theanalysis in
Social Equity and Job Creation
indicates. Yet the “high road” vision isnonetheless predicated on the belief thatthis vicious, crisis-ridden system can sud-denly become both pro-worker and glob-ally competitive.
POLICY CONTRADICTIONS
 The methods to achieve this goal rest ona mixture of contradictory economic theo-ries, and contradictory goals:
j
Firstly
, better conditions for workers areseen as integrally linked to higher produc-tivity via skills, work redesign and “buy-in”via participation. However, the internal market in South Africa re-mains static, given mass poverty, and the country has no prospectof a massive increase in exports, least of all in the context of global economic crisis. In such a context, the vision’s aim of in-creased productivity will simply mean that fewer workers will un-dertake existing jobs – a sure way to lose jobs and union members.
j
Secondly
, Keynesian policies of boosting working-class de-mand do not fit: they are designed for advanced economies(which ours is not), and assume a high degree of regulation andlarge tax base (both lacking), and a closed economy. A closedeconomy is needed because only if the income transferred toworking people via grants and public works is spent primarily onlocal products can it boost local business, and therefore lead tomore jobs and more tax. Otherwise the income is essentiallytransferred abroad. Yet the COSATU vision also seeks an export-led growth path that does not need Keynesian demand-manage-ment, and assumes an increasingly open economy.
CORPORATISM AND CO-DETERMINATION?
 The stress on participation in the management of capitalism, inorder to “co-determine” its evolution radically underestimates thedangers of co-option into, and taking joint responsibility for, cap-italist governance.
j
First
, serious policy engagement with forums like NEDLAC nec-essarily generates within the unions a layer of highly trained tech-nocrats (to develop the policies) and full-time union leaders (tospend their time in these forums). Bureaucracy is
not
inevitablein unions – it is a
consequence
of particular union strategies, andno strategy has a better record of bureaucratising unions than cor-poratism.
j
Secondly
, this is associated with a change in the style of unionwork. Focus shifts from militant struggle (by the grassroots) totechnical talks about policy by union technocrats and officials –along with, of course, their equivalents from business and thestate. This danger is usually underplayed by “strategic unionism”advocates, who call for a “balance” between policy “capacity” and“engagement”, and “mass action” – rather than a deep contra-diction between the two. As RudolphRocker notes in
 Anarchism and Anarcho-Syndicalism
,
“Centralism, that artificialscheme which operates from the top to-wards the bottom and turns over the affairsof administration to a small minority, is al-ways attended by barren official routine; it crushes individual conviction, kills all per-sonal initiative by lifeless discipline and bu-reaucratic ossification” 
, a
“curse” 
on theworking class.
2
j
Thirdly
, the necessary outcome of theunions’ vision is to take co-responsibility formanaging the system. Most concretely, itentails productivity deals: in return forhelping boost output, with the hope of wage increases and job security, unionssign no-strike clauses. The problem is thatthe system is necessarily pitted against theworking class. When strikes break out, theunion finds itself either unable to deliver onthe class compromise (thus, its vision fails),or pitted against the workers (thus, itsplits). More generally, in embracing thesystem’s logic – nationalism/ “Buy SouthAfrica”, competition/ the weak must fall,wage labour/ exploitation, distribution by sales / exclusion – theunions must embrace the very system that they were formed rtofight, and that they promise to abolish.
A NORDIC ROAD?
“Evidence” for the viability of “strategic unionism” is typicallydrawn from the apparent examples of the Nordic social demo-cratic systems of the 1930s-1970s. Sweden and its neighboursundoubtedly developed, through the Keynesian welfare state(KWS), the most socially just, egalitarian, capitalist regimes todate. If the Soviet Union exemplified the Marxist centrally-plannedeconomy at its best and worst, Sweden exemplified the best andworst of a social-democratic system.For supporters of “strategic unionism”, the achievements of theNordic KWS – such as almost zero unemployment, extremely gen-erous welfare including free education etc. – are basically the re-sult of good policies plus corporatism plus unions backing the rightpolitical parties. The problem with this set of claims is that the circumstancesthat led, briefly, to the Nordic KWS no longer exist anywhere onearth – and certainly not in South Africa. The KWS, in general, arose in a unique historical conjuncture:
j
Firstly
, high levels of class struggle, including the real possi-bility of revolutionary upheavals across Europe, forced rulingclasses to introduce large-scale welfare
and
draw the unions intocorporatism in order to tame them. The Cold War, in which a sub-

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