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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

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Published by Ginette Casilla
Chapter 3 APA format sample
Chapter 3 APA format sample

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Ginette Casilla on Oct 03, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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22Chapter 3
MethodologyThe purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of selected school boardmembers regarding the quality and condition, maintenance, and improvement andrenovation of existing public school facilities.The four purposes of this chapter are to (1) describe the research methodology of this study, (2) explain the sample selection, (3) describe the procedure used in designingthe instrument and collecting the data, and (4) provide an explanation of the statisticalprocedures used to analyze the data.Research MethodologyA descriptive research methodology was used for this study. A survey wasadministered to a selected sample from a specific population identified by the NationalSchool Board Association. The term ‘survey’ is commonly applied to a researchmethodology designed to collect data from a specific population, or a sample from thatpopulation, and typically utilizes a questionnaire or an interview as the survey instrument(Robson, 1993).Surveys are used to obtain data from individuals about themselves, theirhouseholds, or about larger social institutions (school boards). Sample surveys are animportant tool for collecting and analyzing information from selected individuals. Theyare widely accepted as a key tool for conducting and applying basic social scienceresearch methodology (Rossi, Wright, and Anderson, 1983).American society is familiar with the use of surveys to assess issues or projecttrends: marketing researchers use surveys to study consumer preference and shoppingpatterns (Leary, 1995). The Gallup poll on education in America is an ongoing project of Phi Delta Kappa. Results of the annual survey are published each year in Kappanmagazine. Selected American television viewers participate in the Nielson surveys,
23designed to estimate the size of various television program audiences for the purpose of establishing advertising rates. Such sample surveys are comprised of standardizedmethodologies designed to gather information by examining systematically identifiedpopulation samples. Social scientists rarely draw conclusions without disaggregating thesample population into various sub-groups. For example, the Gallup polls typicallyexamine issues disaggregated by gender, ethnicity, education and region of the country(Rossi, Wright and Anderson, 1983).According to Leary (1995), there are distinct advantages in using a questionnairevs. an interview methodology: questionnaires are less expensive and easier to administerthan personal interviews; they lend themselves to group administration; and, they allowconfidentiality to be assured. Robson (1993) indicates that mailed surveys are extremelyefficient at providing information in a relatively brief time period at low cost to theresearcher.For these reasons, the researcher chose a descriptive research methodology anddesigned a questionnaire survey instrument to assess the perceptions of selected schoolboard members regarding the quality and condition, maintenance, and improvement andrenovation of existing public school facilities throughout the United States.SampleFor this study, nine regions of the United States were identified by The NationalSchool Boards Association (NSBA) and The American School Board Journal. Themethodology for this study was a stratified random sample of school board membersacross the country that subscribed to The American School Board Journal. Gay (1987)reports:Random sampling is the best single way to obtain arepresentative sample. No technique, not even randomsampling,
a representative sample, but theprobability is higher for this procedure than for any other.(p. 104)
24Gay also agrees that stratified random sampling is an appropriate methodology in order tomake proportionate, and therefore meaningful, comparisons between sub-groups in thepopulation. Robson (1993) tells us that sampling theory supports stratified randomsampling as an efficient choice because the means of the stratified samples are likely tobe closer to the mean of the population overall. Finally, Leary (1995) indicates that astratified random sample will typically reflect the characteristics of the population as awhole. Consequently, the sample in this study was disaggregated by region to address thefact that there is wide variance in the number of school board members within eachgeographical subgroup (Table 1.)

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