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Biginners Introduction to Avr Assembly

Biginners Introduction to Avr Assembly

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Published by Tanvir Hussain
This excellent book is written by Gerhard Schmidth. Taken from www.avr-asm-tutorial.net
This excellent book is written by Gerhard Schmidth. Taken from www.avr-asm-tutorial.net

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Published by: Tanvir Hussain on Jan 19, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/07/2014

 
Beginners Introduction to theAssembly Language ofATMEL-AVR-Microprocessors
by Gerhard Schmidt http://www.avr-asm-tutorial.net December 2008 
History:
Additional corrections and updates as of January 2008Corrected version as of July 2006Original version of December 2003
 
Avr-Asm-Tutorial1http://www.avr-asm-tutorial.net
Content
Why learning Assembler?..........................................................................................................................1Short and easy.......................................................................................................................................1Fast and quick........................................................................................................................................1Assembler is easy to learn.....................................................................................................................1AVRs are ideal for learning assembler..................................................................................................1Test it!....................................................................................................................................................2Hardware for AVR-Assembler-Programming............................................................................................3The ISP-Interface of the AVR-processor family....................................................................................3Programmer for the PC-Parallel-Port....................................................................................................3Experimental boards..............................................................................................................................4Experimental board with an ATtiny13.............................................................................................4Experimental board with an AT90S2313/ATmega2313...................................................................5Ready-to-use commercial programming boards for the AVR-family....................................................6STK200.............................................................................................................................................6STK500.............................................................................................................................................6AVR Dragon.....................................................................................................................................7Tools for AVR assembly programing.........................................................................................................8From a text file to instruction words in the flash memory....................................................................8The editor..........................................................................................................................................8The assembler...................................................................................................................................9Programming the chips........................................................................................................................10Simulation in the studio.......................................................................................................................10What is a register?...............................................................................................................................15Different registers................................................................................................................................16Pointer-registers...................................................................................................................................16Accessing memory locations with pointers....................................................................................16Reading program flash memory with the Z pointer........................................................................17Tables in the program flash memory..............................................................................................17Accessing registers with pointers....................................................................................................17Recommendation for the use of registers.............................................................................................18Ports..........................................................................................................................................................19What is a Port?.....................................................................................................................................19Write access to ports.......................................................................................................................19Read access to ports........................................................................................................................20Read-Modify-Write access to ports................................................................................................20Memory mapped port access..........................................................................................................20Details of relevant ports in the AVR...............................................................................................21The status register as the most used port.............................................................................................21Port details...........................................................................................................................................22SRAM......................................................................................................................................................23Using SRAM in AVR assembler language..........................................................................................23What is SRAM?...................................................................................................................................23For what purposes can I use SRAM?..................................................................................................23How to use SRAM?.............................................................................................................................23Direct addressing............................................................................................................................23Pointer addressing...........................................................................................................................24Pointer with offset...........................................................................................................................24Use of SRAM as stack.........................................................................................................................24Defining SRAM as stack................................................................................................................25Use of the stack...............................................................................................................................25Bugs with the stack operation.........................................................................................................26Jumping and Branching............................................................................................................................27Controlling sequential execution of the program................................................................................27What happens during a reset?.........................................................................................................27Linear program execution and branches..............................................................................................28Branching........................................................................................................................................28Timing during program execution.......................................................................................................29
 
Avr-Asm-Tutorial2http://www.avr-asm-tutorial.net
Macros and program execution...........................................................................................................29Subroutines..........................................................................................................................................30Interrupts and program execution........................................................................................................31Calculations..............................................................................................................................................34Number systems in assembler.............................................................................................................34Positive whole numbers (bytes, words, etc.)...................................................................................34Signed numbers (integers)..............................................................................................................34Binary Coded Digits, BCD.............................................................................................................34Packed BCDs..................................................................................................................................35Numbers in ASCII-format..............................................................................................................35Bit manipulations................................................................................................................................35Shift and rotate....................................................................................................................................36Adding, subtracting and comparing....................................................................................................37Adding and subtracting 16-bit numbers..........................................................................................37Comparing 16-bit numbers.............................................................................................................37Comparing with constants..............................................................................................................37Packed BCD math...........................................................................................................................38Format conversion for numbers...........................................................................................................39Conversion of packed BCDs to BCDs, ASCII or Binaries.............................................................39Conversion of Binaries to BCD......................................................................................................39Multiplication......................................................................................................................................39Decimal multiplication...................................................................................................................39Binary multiplication......................................................................................................................40AVR-Assembler program................................................................................................................40Binary rotation................................................................................................................................41Multiplication in the studio.............................................................................................................41Hardware multiplication......................................................................................................................43Hardware multiplication of 8-by-8-bit binaries..............................................................................43Hardware multiplication of a 16- by an 8-bit-binary......................................................................44Hardware multiplication of a 16- by a 16-bit-binary......................................................................46Hardware multiplication of a 16- by a 24-bit-binary......................................................................48Division...............................................................................................................................................49Decimal division.............................................................................................................................49Binary division...............................................................................................................................49Program steps during division........................................................................................................50Division in the simulator.................................................................................................................51Number conversion..............................................................................................................................52Decimal Fractions................................................................................................................................52Linear conversions..........................................................................................................................52Example 1: 8-bit-AD-converter with fixed decimal output............................................................53Example 2: 10-bit-AD-converter with fixed decimal output..........................................................55Annex.......................................................................................................................................................56Instructions sorted by function............................................................................................................56Directives and Instruction lists in alphabetic order.............................................................................58Assembler directives in alphabetic order........................................................................................58Instructions in alphabetic order......................................................................................................59Port details...........................................................................................................................................61Status-Register, Accumulator flags.................................................................................................61Stackpointer....................................................................................................................................61SRAM and External Interrupt control............................................................................................61External Interrupt Control..............................................................................................................62Timer Interrupt Control..................................................................................................................62Timer/Counter 0..............................................................................................................................63Timer/Counter 1..............................................................................................................................64Watchdog-Timer.............................................................................................................................65EEPROM........................................................................................................................................65Serial Peripheral Interface SPI........................................................................................................66UART..............................................................................................................................................67Analog Comparator.........................................................................................................................67

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