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Secado Por Microondas

Secado Por Microondas

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Published by: Martin Aquino Mendez on Oct 03, 2012
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Research Journal of Chemical Sciences ______________________________________________
ISSN 2231-606X
 
Vol.
2(4),
57-60, April
(2012)
 Res.J.Chem.Sci.
 
International Science Congress Association
57
 
Short Communication
Microwave Drying of Onion Slices
Kalse S.B., Patil M.M. and Jain S.K.
 
Dept. of Processing and food Eng., College of Tech. and Eng., Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, INDIA
 
Available online at: www.isca.in 
(Received 8
th
October 2011, revised 6
th
January 2012, accepted 27
th
January 2012)
 
Abstract
White onion slices were dried using microwave drying technique. The effect of process parameters during microwavedehydration such as effect of various power levels (0.25, 1.00, 1.50 and 2.25 kW) on mass reduction, water loss and diffusivitywere studied. It was found that the mass reduction and water loss increased with increase of power level. The moisturediffusivity varied in the range of 6.491 × 10
-09
to 6.491 ×10
-08 
m²/s. The drying times of onions slices by microwave drying at 0.25, 1.00, 1.50 and 2.25 kW level were 15.86, 6.78, 5.3 and 3.2 hrs. Quality of dried product in respect to colour, rehydrationand water activity was superior.
Keywords
: Microwave drying, colour value, Onion dehydration.
 
Introduction
India (21%) and China (19.3%) is the largest producer of onion(
 Allium cepa L
.) by area as well as by total production. Onionscompared with other fresh vegetable are relatively high in foodenergy, intermediate in protein content and rich in calcium andriboflavin. The post harvest losses of this vegetable are quiteserious in our country so drying or dehydration should becarried out to increase its shelf life but challenge in fruits andvegetables drying are to reduce the moisture content of theproduct to a level where microbiological growth will not occurand simultaneously keep the high nutritive value.Onions are dried from initial moisture content of about 82 percent to 6 per cent or less sufficient for storage and processing
1
.V-12 is the special variety of white onion which is used fordehydration purpose due to its high solid content (17-18 percent). Tray drying brings the product to undesirable changes incolour, texture, flavor and loss in nutritive value
2
. Hence, a newmethod of drying in combination of osmosis (in which partialdehydration of the fruit is brought about by immersing them inosmotic solution using controlled heat transfer applications andthen drying) could be a good solution
3
.Osmosis of onion is done in salt solution because thereconstitution factor for salt-treated samples is greater than thatfor sugar-treated product
4
.Osmotic dehydration is effectiveeven at ambient temperature, so that damage of texture, color,and flavor of food from heat are minimized
5
.Microwave dryinghas been shown to have low energy consumption
6
. Heating ismore rapid because the surface-to-centre conduction stage islargely eliminated
7
. Microwaves have been shown to result infaster drying of materials and satisfying certain qualityconstraints of product for corn
8
and raisins
9
.
Material and Methods
Materials:
The good quality white onions (cultivar V-12) wereselected and cut with a sharp stainless steel knife into circularslices of approximate 4 mm + 0.1 mm thickness.
Measurement of initial Moisture Content:
The moisturecontent of the fresh as well as osmotically dehydrated onionsamples was determined by using AOAC (1984) method.
122
Percent moisture content (db)100
W
 
Microwave Drying Characteristics: Water loss:
The waterloss (WL) is defined as the net weight loss of the fruit on initialweight basis and will be estimated asWL =
iii
 X  X 
    
..
 Mass reduction:
The weight reduction (WR) can be defined asthe net weight loss of the fruit on initial weight basis.WR =
ii
W  W  W  
   
 
Microwave drying of onion:
Main switch control put at ONcondition which gives the power to blower for cooling themagnetron and then switched ON the filament switch of themagnetron which gives 100 per cent voltage to filaments after adelay of 120 seconds then known percentage of initial moisturecontent and known weighed sample of onion were taken anduniformly spread on the turntable inside the microwave cavity,for an even absorption of microwave energy. Now power leveland time were pre-set through a control panel provided on frontside of dryer.
Moisture Diffusivity:
The moisture diffusivity of the samples
was estimated by using the simplified mathematical Fick’s
diffusion model.
 
 Research Journal of Chemical Sciences __________________________________________________________
ISSN 2231-606X
 
Vol.
2(4),
57-60, April
(2012)
 Res.J.Chem.Sci
 
International Science Congress Association
58
 
22
 X  M  D M 
        
 
        
2220
8lnln]ln[
 L D M  M  M  M  MR
eff ee
  
 A general form of above eq
n
could be written in semi-logarithmic form, as follows.
Bt  A M 
 R
ln
 Experimental values of the effective diffusivity are typicallycalculated by plotting experimental drying data in terms of ln(
 M 
 R
) versus drying time and the slope of the curve was ameasure of the moisture diffusivity.
22
 L DSlope
eff 
 
 
Quality evaluation:
In order to determine quality of osmoticdehydrated onion samples had been evaluated on the basisseveral parameters such as, colour, rehydration and wateractivity.
Colour measurement:
The most common technique to assessthe colour is Hunter lab colorimeter used in the present.
Water activity:
A digital water activity meter was used formeasuring water activity of dehydrated onion samples.
Rehydration ratio:
The rehydration ratio of dried onionsamples was determined by putting 10 g of samples with 1000ml of distilled water in beaker. It was allowed to rehydrate for 5h at 20
0
C temperature.
gsamplesdried of   Mass gsamplesrehydrated of   Mass nratiorehydratio
 
Specific energy consumption
)()100(
 f i f on
 M  M m M PSEC 
 
Results and Discussion
 Microwave drying of onion slices:
The weight of the onionsamples was taken after every 15 min intervals for the first onehour of the experiments. Afterwards the weight was noted after30 min intervals till the sample attained constant weight. Thedrying times of onions slices by microwave drying at 0.25,1.00, 1.50 and 2.25 kW power level were 15.86, 6.78, 5.3 and3.2 hrs respectively. Graph plotted as moisture content v/sdrying time (figure 1).
Moisture Diffusivity of onion slices:
Moisture ratio plotted asln (MR) v/s drying time (figure 2). The variation in (MR) withdrying time for each case was found to be linear. The slopebecame steeper with increase in microwave power level.Moisture diffusivities were calculated from the slopes of thesestraight lines
10,11
.
It was observed that moisture diffusivityincreased with microwave power level in microwave dryingprocesses .The moisture diffusivity varied in the range of 6.491× 10
-09
to 6.491 ×10
-08
m²/s during microwave drying of onionsamples.
 Figure-1Drying curve for fresh onion slices by microwave drying
Microwave drying of onion slices
 
0
 
10
 
20
 
30
 
40
 
50
 
60
 
70
 
80
 
90
 
100
 
0
 
50
 
100
 
150
 
200
 
250
 
300
 
350
 
400
 
450
 
500
 
550
 
600
 
650
 
700
 
750
 
800
 
850
 
900
 
950
 
1000
 
Drying time (min)
 
Moisture content, per cent
 
0.2
 
1.0
1.5
 
2.25
 
 
 Research Journal of Chemical Sciences __________________________________________________________
ISSN 2231-606X
 
Vol.
2(4),
57-60, April
(2012)
 Res.J.Chem.Sci
 
International Science Congress Association
59
 
Effect of process parameter on quality:
The quality of dehydrated onion slices was evaluated on the basis of colour aswell as water activity. The L* (lightness) increased for theonion slices when power level was increased from 0.25 kW to1.50 kW, meaning that sample became lighter in colour,However, L-value reduced further at 2.25 kW level possiblydue to exposure of product to high temperature result indarkening of dried product (table 2).
Water activity:
Water activity was determined as a measure of storage stability using a Hygrolab-3 water activity meter for allsamples. The water activity of all samples were around 0.46-0.61 which is recommended to avoid microbial growth andenzymatic reactions
12
.
Specific Energy Consumption:
Specific energy consumptionwas determined using equation and the data are summarized intable 5.The specific energy consumption was found more at 1.50 kW(35.39) power level.
Figure-2Variation in ln (MR) with drying time at different power levels for microwave drying of onion slicesTable-1Effective moisture diffusivity of onion slices during microwave dryingSr. no Microwave Level Diffusivity (m
2
 /s) R
2
 
1 0.25 6.49114 x 10
-09
0.91122 1.00 1.29823 x 10
-08
0.9463 1.50 4.86835 x 10
-
0.93744 2.25 6.49114 x 10
-08
0.9409
Table-2Lightness (L* values) of microwave dried onion slicesDrying method Mw Density L* a* b*Microwave Drying
0.25 33.11 7.23 3.971.00 41.53 6.82 4.711.50 41.61 7.15 5.952.25 38.48 8.54 6.30
Table-3Rehydrational characteristics of microwave dried onion slicesSr.no Drying TechniquesMicrowave Level(kW)Rehydration ratio(RR)Coefficient of rehydration(COR)
1
Microwave Drying
0.25 3.74 0.712 1.00 3.94 0.753 1.50 4.18 0.804 2.25 4.21 0.80
-7
 
-6
 
-5
 
-4
 
-3
 
-2
 
-1
 
0
 
 
0
 
100
 
200
 
300
 
400
 
500
 
600
 
700
 
800
 
900
 
1000
 
Time (min)
 
lnMR
 
0.25 kW
 
1.0 kW
 
1.5 kW
 
2.25 kW
 

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