Global energy targets and optimal operating conditionsfor waste energy recovery in Bisphenol-A plant
, A.K. Hasan
Department of Materials and Process Engineering, The University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand
Received 24 December 2004; accepted 23 June 2005Available online 19 August 2005
The worldwide increase in energy demands and the uncertainty of future energy costs make energy conservation a major elementin controlling operating costs of any chemical process. This paper presents new opportunities for energy saving inside Bisphenol-A(BPA) plant through the optimal selection of process operating temperatures that enhance plant
s energy recovery system. Theseoptimal operational modiﬁcations are systematically selected from a set of allowable process operating conditions without enumer-ation using novel interval constraint satisfaction model-based software called TEM_icons
. The paper shows that simple in-pro-cess modiﬁcations for the sake of energy utilities saving in an actual BPA industrial facility can result in more than 17% saving in hotutility consumption.
2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Operational optimization; Heat integration; Bisphenol-A; TEM_icons
; Interval constraint satisfaction; Constraint logic propagation
BPA is a very important raw material for plasticindustry. Its production is an energy intensive process.Keeping the BPA energy consumption bill under controlneeds more aggressive energy recovery schemes than juststraightforward heat integration via in-process modiﬁca-tions that enhance the waste energy recovery. Manymethods and tools for analyzing the energy dimensionin industrial chemical plants have been developed duringthe last two decades. These methods used mainly math-ematical programming and pinch technology to deter-mine the optimal process conditions that result ineﬃcient use of energy in chemical process industries.Two main challenges face the industrial community inadopting these methods. The ﬁrst challenge is relatedto the plant-wide model development time and cost aswell as the combinatorial nature of the customizedfull-scale model of a real industrial facility. The secondone is the need to search the space of all possibilitiesin process operating conditions modiﬁcations withoutexhaustive enumeration and without using heuristicsthat render sub-optimal solution. Furthermore the lackof a systematic technique to rigorously quantify the po-tential beneﬁts, in energy saving due to in-process mod-iﬁcations, does not help justify the decision for veryinvolved energy study.This paper addresses these two challenges system-atically using new interval constraint satisfaction-based technology known as TEM_icons
. It alsodemonstrates that signiﬁcant energy saving can berealized in BPA plants through optimal in-processmodiﬁcations.
1359-4311/$ - see front matter
2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2005.06.017
Corresponding author. Tel.: +64 7 8384466x6795; fax: +64 78384835.
firstname.lastname@example.org(M.B. Noureldin).www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermengApplied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 374–381